Sentence 059 Let the cat out of the bag. Feb. 28, 2019

059 I’m a talented teenager and I’m highly motivated too.

059 If I practise hard, I will become a famous pianins.

059 I’m a talented teenager but I’m lazy.

059 If I practised hard, I would become a famous pianist.

059 I have many talents including Science and Music. Nowadays, Science takes all my time and Music is just a neglected love.

059 If I had practised hard, I would’ve become a famous pianist.

Leslie: Here and Now, we are dealing with the Third Conditional.

This time, we are less interested in how to make it; rather we try to find out how it is born.

The first Sentence ’I’m a talented teenager and I’m highly motivated too.’ sets a Situation in which the Result is Highly Probable if the Condition is met: ’If I practise hard, I will become a famous pianist.’

At this point, there are two kinds of continuation of the story:

> I practised hard and I became a famous pianist.

The Condition ’If I practise hard,’ is met and it is Not a Condition any more in the Past Time.

Here, we cannot talk about the Third Conditional.

> I was very talented but I didn’t practise very hard and I didn’t become a famous pianist.

The Condition ’If I practise hard,’ is still a Condition beyond my teens; the Condition is not met and it is still a Condition in the Past.

Condition and Past are expressed in the Past Perfect: ’If I had practised hard,’.

The Result is: ’I didn’t become a famous pianist.’

If I link it to the Past Condition, and look back on it with Regret, the Sentence is:

’If I had practised hard, I would’ve become a famous pianist.’

The next Sentence ’I’m a talented tenager but I’m lazy.’ sets a Situation, in which the Positive Result has Low Probability; since the Condition is Almost Hypothetical, the chances for a Positive Result are very low indeed.

’If I practised hard, I would become a famous pianist.’

At this point, there are again two kinds of continuation of the story:

> I didn’t practise hard and as a result I didn’t become a famous pianist.

The Condition ’If I practised hard,’ is not met and it is still a Condition well beyond my teens.

Condition and Past are expressed int he Past Perfect: ’If I had practised hard,’.

The Result is, again: ’I didn’t become a famous pianist.’If I link itt o the Past Condition, and look back on it with Sympathy, the Sentence is:

’If I had practised hard, I would’ve become a famous pianist.’

From this Sentence alone, we cannot tell, really, whether the Chances were originally High or Low; they have become ZERO with the passage of Time.

The other variation, i. e. that I didn’t practise hard but I still became a famous pianist, belongs the to realm of miracles or fairy tales.

The Sentence ’I have many talents including Science and Music. Nowadays, Science takes all my time and Music is just a neglected love.’ necessarily means that I didn’t become a famous pianist.

Still, I can look back with Regret: ’If I had practised hard, I would’ve become a famous pianist.’

Here, I can set a Condition to the Past although there wasn’t a Condition set in the Here and Now.

All in all, if a Here and Now Condition, be it First Condition with High Probability or Second Condition with Low Probability, is not met before it becomes Past Time, it turns into a Third Condition and it is expressed int he Past Perfect Tense.

On the other hand, I can look back on any Action, Happening or State that I didn’t do, that didn’t happen, or that wasn’t true in its Here and Now with Regret or Sympathy and talk about it in the Third [Impossible] Condition; setting the Condition in the Present is not a Precondition of a Past Conditional.

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Sentence 058 Let the cat out of the bag. Feb. 27, 2019

058 If I had had any sense the year before last, I wouldn’t’ve bought a flat just above a disco and a stag-party restaurant.

058 If I had been in your shoes yesterday afternoon, I would’ve signed the contract.

058 If I had been practising more in my teens, I could’ve become a pianist.

058 If George had had all the necessary information int he planning phase, he would’ve been able to tell us show to save the building.

058 If I could’ve stopped before the pelican crossing last night, I wouldn’t’ve caused an accident.

058 If I had had the support you enjoyed in your family, I would be a postgraduate student at the University of London.

Leslie: Here and Now, we are dealing with the Third Conditional.

It is ’If + Past Perfect’ for the Condition and Conditional Perfect for the Result.

Both the Condition and the Result can be Positive or Negative.

It is Impossible Condition since it relates to Past Time.

In the Condition, Past Perfect is not earlier past than Past; it is Conditional and Past.

In the Result, the Conditional Form cannot be made Past; the Meaning is made Past by using Perfect Infinitive.  

The first Sentence ’If I had had any sense the year before last, I wouldn’t’ve bought a flat just above a disco and a stag-party restaurant.’ is ’If + Past Perfect Simple Tense of the Verb HAVE’ for the Condition and ’WOULD + NOT + Perfect Infinitive of the Verb BUY’ for the Result.

The Sentence ’If I had been in your shoes yesterday afternoon, I would’ve signed the contract.’ is ’If + Past Perfect Simple Tense of the Verb BE’ for the Condition and ’WOULD + Perfect Infinitive of the Verb SIGN’ for the Result.

The Sentence ’If I had been practising more in my teens, I could’ve become a pianist.’ is ’If + Past Perfect Continuous Tense of the Verb PRACTISE’ for the Condition and ’COULD + Perfect Infinitive of the Verb BECOME’ for the Result.

’COULD’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it expresses Ability.

We use it as a Conditional Form of CAN.

The Sentence ’If George had had all the necessary information in the planning phase, he would’ve been able to tell us show to save the building. ’ is ’If + Past Perfect Simple Tense of the Verb HAVE’ for the Condition and ’WOULD + Perfect Infinitive of the Verb BE + the Adjective ABLE’ for the Result.

The Sentence ’If I could’ve stopped before the pelican crossing last night, I wouldn’t’ve caused an accident.’ is ’If + COULD + Perfect Infinitive of the Verb STOP’ for the Condition and ’WOULD + NOT + Perfect Infinitive of the Verb CAUSE’ for the Result.

The Anomalous Finite ’COULD’ is Conditional and as such it has no Past Form; it can only be made Past by adding Perfect Infinitive.

The Sentence ’If I had had the support you enjoyed in your family, I would be a postgraduate student at the University of London.’ is ’If + Part Perfect Simple Tense of the Verb HAVE’ for the Condition and ’WOULD + Infinitive of the Verb BE’ for the Result.

It is a Mixed Conditional; the Condition is Past but the Result is Non-Past.

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Sentence 057 Let the cat out of the bag. Feb. 26, 2019

057 If I finish work early, we shall go jogging on the island.

057 If I finished work early, we would go jogging on the island.

057 If Dorothy has finished her homework by 4 o’clock, she will watch her favourite soap.

057 If Dorothy finished her homework by 4 o'clock, she would watch her favourite soap.

057 If there is fair wind tomorrow, we may go sailing in the bay.

057 If there were fair wind tomorrow, we would go sailing in the bay.

057 If John doesn’t hurry, his train will have pulled out of the station by the time he gets to the platform.

057 If Jenny should come home earlier, please tell her I’ll be a bit late.

057 Should Jenny come home earlier, please tell her I’ll be a bit late.

057 If the bank transfer gets through, we must go and buy a new laptop.

057 If the bank transfer got through, we would go and buy a new laptop.

057 If it weren’t for my tennis elbow, I would beat Rafa Nadal six love.

057 But for my tennis elbow, I would beat Rafa Nadal six love.

Leslie: Here and Now, we are dealing with Conditional Sentences in general.

There are three Main Types and many Peripheral Types.

The three Main Types are

  • the First Conditional [Non-Past Time and High Probability],
  • Second Conditional [Non-Past Time and Low Probability], and
  • Third Conditional [Past Time and Zero Probability].

The First Conditional is ’If + Present Tense’ for the Condition and ’Future Tense’ for the Result.

The Second Conditional is ’If + Past Tense’ for the Condition and ’Would + Infinitive’ for the Result.

The Third Conditional is ’If + Past Perfect’ for the Condition and ’Would + Perfect Infinitive’ for the Result.

The first Sentence ’If I finish work early, we shall go jogging on the island. ’ is First Conditional for High Probability.

The next Sentence ’If I finished work early, we would go jogging on the island.’ is Second Conditional for Low Probability.

The Sentence ’If Dorothy has finished her homework by 4 o’clock, she will watch her favourite soap.’ is First Conditional for High Probability.

It is ’If + Present Perfect’ for the Condition that is perfectly all right since the Condition may contain any one of the Present Tenses, not just the Present Simple.

The Result is the routine ’Future Tense’.

The next Sentence ’If Dorothy finished her homework by 4 o'clock, she would watch her favourite soap.’ is Second Conditional for Low Probability.

The Sentence ’If there is fair wind tomorrow, we may go sailing in the bay.’ is ’If + Present Tense’ for the Low Condition First Conditional and ’May + Infinitive’ for a Medium Probability Result.

The next Sentence ’If there were fair wind tomorrow, we would go sailing in the bay.’ is Second Conditional for Low Probability.

The Sentence ’If John doesn’t hurry, his train will have pulled out of the station by the time he gets to the platform.’ is ’If + Present Tense’ for High Probability Condition.

The Result is ’Future Perfect Tense’ that is perfectly all right since the Result may contain any one of the perfect Tenses, not just the Future Simple.

The next Sentence ’If Jenny should come home earlier, please tell her I’ll be a bit late.’ is one of the Peripheral Types of Conditionals since it breaks the Rule: ’No Shall, Will, Should, Would in the IF-CLAUSE’.

It contains ’If + Should’ that is either Substandard English or the special use of ’Should’ for extremely high level of politeness or hesitation.

The next Sentence ’Should Jenny come home earlier, please tell her I’ll be a bit late.’ has the same meaning as the previous but in Informal Style.

The Sentence ’If the bank transfer gets through, we must go and buy a new laptop.’ is ’If + Present Tense’ for a High Probability First Condition.

The Result is ’Must + Infinitive’ for the Result that is perfectly all right since it expresses Future Obligation.

The next Sentence ’If the bank transfer got through, we would go and buy a new laptop.’ is a Low Probability Second Conditional.

The Sentence ’If it weren’t for my tennis elbow, I would beat Rafa Nadal six love.’ is a Low Probability Second Conditional.

The next Sentence ’But for my tennis elbow, I would beat Rafa Nadal six love.’ means practically the same but in Substandard English.

The ’Condition’ is not a real condition since it doesn’t contain a Verb.

This type of Conditional is frequently used by Native Speakers of English in Informal Speech.

If there is no Verb in the ’Condition’, you cannot make a mistake on it.

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Sentence 056 Let the cat out of the bag. Feb 25, 2019

056 I’m going to travel around the world.

056 I’ve been to Rome.

056 When did you go there?

056 If it is nice at the weekend, we’ll go to the seaside.

056 It’s time we went home.

056 My train leaves at 9 pm.

056 When I turn the corner, who do you think is standing in front of me?

056 When is he going to London?

056 When the guests arrive, we’ll offer them a drink first.

Leslie: It is a very diffuse topic that is lacking conciseness; it spreads through all three Time-Segments, Past Time, Present Time, and Future Time, and also through all the twelve Tenses.

Eve: Why is there such a big difference between the two Concepts?

L: Mainly, because Tense is in the Language while Time is outside the language; most often in the Context, in the Situation, in the Culture, or in the History.

E: Then, where shall we start?

L: Let’s start with the thirteenth Tense, the ’Going to Future’.

E: This Sentence ’I’m going to travel around the world.’ is in ’Going to Future Tense’.

The name suggests that it is Future Tense and the situation that it is Future Time.

L: The name is a bit misleading. There are only two Verb Forms in the English language: Present and Past.

The future is always expressed either with the help of an Anomalous Finite, i. e. [Shall, Will, Should, Would] or in one of the Present Tenses.

E: The ’Going to Future’ is not among the 12 English Tenses.

L: It is a relatively New Form and only recently can we call it a Tense.

It started a few decades ago; before that users of English used the Present Continuous Tense with Place information like: ’I’m going to the station to meet Jerry.’

In this Sentence the word ’to’ is a Preposition.

The Time is Present ’Here and Now’ and the Tense is Present Continuous.

Then in colloquial English the Verb ’go’ appeared as in ’I’m going to go to the station to meet Jerry.’

In this Sentence the word ’to’ is an Infinitive Marker.

The Time is Near Future / Indefinite Non-Past and the Tense is Present Continuous Tense with the Verb ’go’.

As a next step, the Verb ’go’ was gradually replaced by Other Verbs and with that a New Tense appeared: the ’Going to Future Tense’ as in ’I’m going to meet Jerry at the station.’ or ’I’m going to travel around the world.’

The Time is Near Future / Indefinite Non-Past and the Tense is ’Going to Future’.

The Verb is OUT-OF-PHASE as if it were the Inverse Function to Present Perfect Tense with no Time-Marker.

E: The next Sentence is ’I’ve been to Rome.’

L: It is Present Perfect Simple Tense and the Verb links the Past Time Segment and the Present Time Segment together.

The Verb is OUT-OF-PHASE.

E: If we raise a Time Question about the previous Sentence, it is ’When did you go there?’.

If we answer that Question ’I went there four years ago for a summer holiday.’

For both the Time Question and for the Answer about Time, we have got to change the Present Perfect Simple Tense ro Past Simple Tense.

L: In the next Sentence ’If it is nice at the weekend, we’ll go to the seaside.’ the Time is Future / Non-Past for both the Condition and the Result.

In English, the Future is always Hypothetical and we express the High Probability in the Present Simple Tense for the Condition, and in the Future Simple Tense for the Result.

E: The next Sentence ’It’s time we went home.’ is about Future Time and it contains the Verb in the Past Simple Tense.

L: It is like that because the Phrase ’It’s time’ invites the Conditional Form and that is expressed in the Past Simple Tense.

The Second Form of the Verb is Past Simple Tense if the Time-Marker is Past but Conditional Form if there is a Conditional Marker.

E: In the Sentence ’My train leaves at 9 pm.’ the Verb is in the Simple Present Tense and the Time is All-Inclusive, including the Past, Present, and Future Time Segments.

L: In a Typical Situation, there is an indirect reference to the train I’m going to catch but only as Part of the Time-Table that is All-Inclusive.

E: In the Sentence ’When I turn the corner, who do you think is standing in front of me?’ we use the Present Tenses in a Story-Telling Past Situation to make it sound more real and / or more dramatic.

L: In the Sentence ’When is he going to London?’ the Time is Future / Non-Past and it is expressed in the Present Continuous Tense.

The Structure itself, i. e. the Present Continuous Tense means the Time Here and Now.

If we still ask about it, then it is Not Here and Now; it is Future Time / Non-Past Time.

We call this question a Switch Question because the meaning switches from Present Time / Here and Now to Future Time.

E: In the Sentence ’When the guests arrive, we’ll offer them a drink first.’ the Time is Future / Non-Past for both the Condition and the Result.

In English the Future is always Hypothetical and we express the High Probability int he Present Simple Tense for the Condition, and in the Future Simple Tense for the Result.

It is true even if the Conditional Marker is ’When’ rather than ’If’.

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Sentence 055 Let the cat out of the bag. Feb. 24, 2019

055 I’m ready. I have dug the garden.

055 I have been digging the garden all afternoon but I still haven’t finished.

055 I have lived here for five years.

055 I have been living here for five years. It feels like a century.

055 I have waited here for 20 minutes.

055 I have been waiting here for more than 20 minutes. Who do you think you are?

055 It has rained all afternoon.

055 It has been raining all afternoon. I think it will never stop.

Leslie: Here and Now we are dealing with Present Perfect Simple and Present Perfect Continuous; they show both similarities and differences.

The Verb in the first Sentence ’I have dug the garden. I’m ready.’ connects two Segments of Time: Past Time and Present Time.

The Action started in the Past and finished in the Present.

The Verb is very clearly OUT-OF PHASE.

The Verb in the next Sentence ’I have been digging the garden all afternoon but I still haven’t finished.’ connects three Segments of Time: Past Time, Present Time and Future Time.

The Action started in the Past, it was half-ready in the Present, and continued towards the Future.

The Verb is clearly OUT-OF-PHASE.

The Verb in the Sentence ’I have lived here for five years.’ connects two Segments of Time: Past Time and present Time.

The Situation started five years ago and it is still the same.

It may or may not continue towards the Future.

The Verb is OUT-OF-PHASE.

The Sentence ’I have been living here for five years. It feels like a century.’ is almost exacly the same.

The only difference is the speaker’s attitude: the five years period feels not only long, but too long.

The situation may or may not continue towards the future.

The Verb is OUT-OF-PHASE.

The Verb in the Sentence ’I have waited here for 20 minutes.’ connects two Segments of Time: Past Time that started 20 minutes ago, and Present Time that is felt as Here and Now.

The Situation started 20 minutes ago and finished at the moment by the other person’s arrival.

It will not continue towards the Future.

The Verb is OUT-OF-PHASE.

The Sentence ’I have been waiting here for more than 20 minutes. Who do you think you are?’ is almost the same.

The only difference is the speaker’s attitude: waiting for more than 20 minutes makes them irritated.

The situation may not continue towards the future since the other person has arrived.

The Verb is OUT-OF-PHASE.

The Verb in the Sentence ’It has rained all afternoon.’ connects two Segments of Time: Past Time that started at noon, and Present Time that is late in the afternoon or early in the evening.

The huge amount of rain maybe good or maybe bad; it is not said and we don’t know.

The Verb is OUT-OF-PHASE.

In contrast, the Verb in the Sentence ’It has been raining all afternoon. I think it will never stop.’ connects three Segments of Time: the Past Time, i. e. the Time when the rain started, Present Time when the Situation is commented on, and Future Time when the rain may stop at last.

The huge amount of water is most definitely bad for some reason.

The Verb is OUT-OF-PHASE.

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Sentence 054 Let the cat out of the bag. Feb. 23, 2019

054 After I had finished writing, I went to have a shower.

054 After I finished writing, I went to have a shower.

054 By the time I got home last night, Jenny had already cooked the dinner.

054 When I woke up, Susan had left for university.

054 When Susan woke me up, she left for university.

054 The victim had died when the Ambulance reached the hospital.

054 If it had been nice, we would have gone to the seaside.

054 If it were nice, we would go to the seaside.

054 I’ve been to Rome, I’ve been to Paris, I’ve seen the Katmandu.

054 Jim told me last night that he had been to Rome, he had been to Paris, he had seen the Katmandu.

054 I went to Rome in 1995, I went to Paris in 2000, and I saw the Katmandu in 2005.

054 Jim told me last night that he went to Rome in 1995, he went to Paris in 2000, and he saw the Katmandu in 2005.

054 I wish you had told me earlier that you would come to London.

Leslie: Here and Now we are going to deal with the Past Perfect Tense in contrast with other Tenses or Forms.

Kathy: It sounds like a very complex topic.

L: You are right, it is but, luckily, we can put all the examples here into one of three categories:

  • Past Perfect Form – Past Perfect Meaning,
  • Past Tense Form – Past Perfect Meaning, and
  • Past Perfect Form – Past Tense Meaning.

We can also decide about all examples if they are IN-PHASE or OUT-OF-PHASE.

K: In the first Sentence ’After I had finished writing, I went to have a shower.’, there are two actions ’After I had finished writing’ and ’I went to have a shower.’

Both are in Past Time and the Main Clause and the Subordinated Clause are each other’s Time Markers.

The Time Marker ’After’ coordinates the two Clauses as a Past Perfect – Past Simple relationship.

The Past Perfect is OUT-OF-PHASE, i. e. the Action and its Result represent Different Times and the Past Tense is IN-PHASE.

L: I think the next Sentence ’After I finished writing, I went to have a shower.’ means practically the same in Informal Spoken English.

The Time Marker ’After’ coordinates the two Clauses so well / clearly in spoken English that we don’t need a Past Perfect – Past Tense relationship to express the Time Sequence of the two Actions.

The first Past Tense ’finished’ is OUT-OF-PFASE and the second Past Tense ’went’ is IN-PHASE.

K: In the next Sentence ’By the time I got home last night, Jenny had already cooked the dinner.’ the Time Marker ’By the time’ coordinates the sequence of the two Actions in the Past Perfect and the Past Tense as one after the other.

The Past Perfect is OUT-OF-PHASE.

L: The next Sentence is very similar.

K: Yes, really. In the Sentence ’When I woke up, Susan had left for university.’ the Time Marker ’when’ doesn’t coordinate the sequence of the two actions very clearly.

’When’ suggests that the two actions happened almost at the same time; very closely one after the other.

The Past Perfect is OUT-OF-PHASE.

The next Sentence ’When Susan woke me up, she left for university.’ is totally different.

The Time Marker here is ’when’ and there are two Verbs in the Past Tense but it is clear from the sequence of the Actions that the Meaning is like a Past perfect – Past Tense relationship.

The first Verb ’woke’ is OUT-OF-PFASE.

L: The next Sentence ’The victim had died when the Ambulance reached the hospital.’ is again a Past Perfect – Past Tense relationship.

K: The Time Marker is ’when’ and it suggests that in the sequence of the two Actions the second came immediately after the first.

The Past Perfect is OUT-OF-PHASE.

L: The Sentence ’If it had been nice, we would have gone to the seaside.’ is a Complex Statement and it contains a Verb in the Past Perfect Tense but the meaning is not Past before Past.

It is Conditional and Past and that adds up to Past Perfect.

The Past Perfect is IN-PHASE.

The next Sentence ’If it were nice, we would go to the seaside.’ shows the same Conditional Sentence before it left the Here and Now and became Past.

It is Conditional and Present and necessarily IN-PHASE.

K: The next Sentence ’I’ve been to Rome, I’ve been to Paris, I’ve seen the Katmandu.’ is interesting but it is outside the scope of this topic; it is in Present Perfect and there is no Time Marker in the Sentence.

L: You are right. However, we are dealing with Sentences in the Past Perfect and these generally originate in Sentences in Past Tense, or in Present Perfect, or in Conditional Present.

K: The Sentence above is in Present Perfect [three instances] with no Time Marker.

If we report it, we get ’Jim told me last night that he had been to Rome, he had been to Paris, he had seen the Katmandu.’

The Sentence is in Past Perfect [three instances] and it is most definitely OUT-OF-PHASE.

In contrast, the Sentence ’I went to Rome in 1995, I went to Paris in 2000, and I saw the Katmandu in 2005.’ is in Past Tense [three instances].

If we report it, we get ’Jim told me last night that he went to Rome in 1995, he went to Paris in 2000, and he saw the Katmandu in 2005.’

Because of the fix point Time Marker, the reporting doesn’t change the Past Tense into Past Perfect.

The Verbs in the Sentence are IN-PHASE.

The Sentence ’I wish you had told me earlier that you would come to London.’ is Conditional and it contains Past Perfect.

It is Conditional and Past that looks like Past Perfect but it is not Past before Past.

It is IN-PHASE.

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Sentence 053 Let the cat out of the bag. Feb. 22, 2019

053 Betty has broken two World Records so far.

053 Have you ever been to Switzerland?

053 Have you met my brother yet?

053 I have been teaching for 48 years.

053 I have never been to Scotland.

053 I havent been to Scotland since I first went there in 1983.

053 I’m not really hungry. I have already had lunch.

053 Tell me about John. Where does he live now?

053 He lives in Scotland.

053 Has he always lived in Scotland? Born and bred?

053 No, he hasn’t.

053 Where did he live before moving to Scotland?

053 He lived in Dublin, Ireland?

053 When did he move from Ireland to Scotland?

053 He moved from Ireland to Scotland 7 year ago.

053 How long has he lived in Scotland?

053 He has lived in Scotland for 7 years.

Leslie: Here and Now we are dealing with the Present Perfect Tense, with and without Time-Markers.

George: I’m in two minds about the Present Perfect.

On the one hand, it is ’HAVE + the 3rd FORM of the VERB’. What could be easier?

And on the other, it is probably the most difficult Tense if / when we want to sell it to students.

L: I guess you are right here. Everybody needs it, everybody learns it, everybody takes exams or tests about it, but very few students use it actively and correctly.

Even in English-Speaking Countries, more and more people of the young generations want to live without it.

G: Why is it so? What do you think the root of the problem is?

L: Most probably, there isn’t one single reason for such a complex phenomenon.

For one, most grammar books and the great majority of teachers want to teach the Present Perfect as one single idea rather than a very complex ’product’, i. e. the synthesis of more Tenses.

Another reason might be that we don’t teach the Preceeding Tenses, e. g. the Past Simple Tense well enough before we want to teach the Present Perfect.

Because of this, the idea of ’IN-PHASE’ for the Action and the Result of the Action doesn’t get through.

You can see the idea of ’IN-PHASE’ demonstrated in the next video:

In-Phase Video  https://www.dropbox.com/s/19n9g1olvox2h8n/Cause%20and%20effect%20In.swf?dl=0

As an example see ’Betty broke a World Record six years ago and another one two years ago.’

The Action and the Result are IN-PHASE.

In contrast, we need the idea of ’Out-Of-Phase’, i. e. the Action and its Result ’Out-Of-Phase’ in ’Betty has broken two World Records so far.’ as it is demonstrated in the next video:

Out-Of-Phase Video  https://www.dropbox.com/s/m4qb6rx32uygiz4/Cause%20and%20Effect%20Out-of-Phase%20Loop.ppt?dl=0

G: In the Sentences that follow, we’ll try to identify the Actions and their Results and decide whether they are ’IN-PHASE’ or ’OUT-OF-PHASE’.

L: ’Betty has broken two World Records so far.’

G: Betty broke a World Record six years ago and another one two years ago.

Up until now, she has broken two World Records.

Very clearly, OUT-OF-PHASE.

L: ’Have you ever been to Switzerland?’

G: In this question, we are asking you about a time or more times when you possibly went to Switzerland and if you did, we can sum up the experience as OUT-OF-PHASE.

A negative answer would make it IN-PHASE since it has no Past Time Element.

It is IN-PHASE in the Here and Now.

L: ’Have you met my brother yet?’

G: In this question, we are asking you about a time or more times when you possibly met my brother and if you did, we can sum up the experience as OUT-OF-PHASE.

A negative answer would make it IN-PHASE since it has no Past Time Element.

It is IN-PHASE in the Here and Now.

L: ’I have been teaching for 48 years.’

G: I started teaching 48 years ago. I haven’t stopped teaching ever since and I have no intention whatsoever to stop it in the near future.

It is OUT-OF-PHASE since the Action is in the PAST and its Result is still with us in the NON-PAST.

L: ’I have never been to Scotland.’

G: This Sentence is all Present since it has NO PAST ELEMENT at all.

It is very clearly IN-PHASE in the Here-and-Now. 

L: ’I havent been to Scotland since I first went there in 1983.’

G: I went to Scotland back in 1983 and even now my only direct experience about Scotland dates back to that Time.

It is very clearly OUT-OF-PHASE.

L: ’I’m not really hungry. I have already had lunch.’

G: The first Sentence is in the Here-and-Now. It is there to set the situation.

The second Sentence there is a suggestion that I had lunch in an Undefined Time in the Past and as the Result of that Action I’m bot hungry at the moment.

It is very clearly OUT-OF-PHASE.

L: Now, I want to demonstrate how we can synthetise Present Perfect [either the Meaning or both the Meaning and the Form] out of other Tenses.

Who is your best friend?

G: John.

L: ’Tell me about John. Where does he live now?’

G: ’He lives in Scotland.’

L: ’Has he always lived in Scotland? Born and bred?’

G: ’No, he hasn’t.’

L: ’Where did he live before moving to Scotland?’

G: ’He lived in Dublin, Ireland.’

L: ’When did he move from Ireland to Scotland?’

G: ’He moved from Ireland to Scotland 7 year ago.’

L: ’How long has he lived in Scotland?’

G: ’He has lived in Scotland for 7 years.’

It is very clearly OUT-OF-PHASE.

Sentence 053 Upload for Feb. 22, 2019

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Sentence 052 Let the cat out of the bag. Feb. 21, 2019

052 A husband goes home earlier than usual.

052 And as I turn the corner, who is standing in front of me?

052 In May 1945, WWII comes to an end in Europe.

052 Russian air-force attack targets in Chechnia

052 The film ends with a mad race between a sloth and a mole, and they both have to perform int he other’s territory.

Leslie: Here and Now, we are dealing with the use of Present Tenses for Past Time.

In all cases, we use the Present Tenses to animate the actions or happenings.

The Future is but a Hypothesis and the Past is History. We can only dramatize anything in the Present.

If we want to make a Future Hypothesis sound more real and less hypothetical, we express it in a Present Tense.

If we want to make a Past History less dead and more living, we express it is a Present Tense.

It is common in jokes, as in ’A husband goes home earlier than usual.’

In dramatic story-telling, as in ’And as I turn the corner, who is standing in front of me?’

In summaries of historical events, as in ’In May 1945, WWII comes to an end in Europe.’

in newspaper headlines, as in ’Russian air-force attack targets in Chechnia’

In book- or film reviews, as in ’The film ends with a mad race between a sloth and a mole, and they both have to perform in the other’s territory.’

Sentence 052 Upload for Feb. 21, 2019

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Sentence 051 Let the cat out of the bag. Feb. 20, 2019

051 I saw my neighbour build a house last year.

051 I saw my sister’s neighbour building a house last night.

051 Do you see that blue bird fishing in the lake?

051 I’m looking at the big cranes unloading a huge liner in the harbour.

051 I heard my nephew practise the guitar from the first chord to the last concert.

051 I heard my granddaughter reading aloud the poem for tomorrow.

051 Can you hear what the speaker is saying?

051 I’m listening to some exciting news on the radio.

051 Grandfather smells of garlic.

051 Something smells burning.

051 My dog is smelling the lamp-post.

051 The horses smelt the water from a mile off.

051The milk tastes sour.

051 Can you taste the ginger in this cake?

051 My aunt was tasting the sauce and liked it a great deal.

051 Please taste this soup for salt.

051 it feels like silk.

051 These sheets feel damp.

051 I feel cold. Can you turn the heater on?

051 The doctor was feeling the boy1s pulse on his temple.

051 I noticed that John avoided mentioning Theresa’s name.

051 I have been observing Theo’s development for the past two months.

051 The Chair recognized the Representative.

051 I’m seeing my friend off at the airport.

051 Dr Bitter is hearing the case.

Leslie: Here and Now we are dealing with Verbs of Perception.

Barnaby: What are Verbs of Perception and why are they special?

L: Verbs of Perception are closely related to the five senses: sight, hearing, smelling, taste, and touch. Some other Verbs also belong here that are related to the mind.

The chief Verbs of this category are: see, hear, smell, taste, and feel.

B: And why are they special?

L: They are special because we don’t use them in the Continuous [Progressive] Tenses in their original meaning.

In other words, we use them in the Simple Tenses even if the meaning is ’Here and Now’, or ’There and Then’.

B: And what are the other Verbs that are related to the mind?

L: They are: notice, observe, and recognize.

B: Are they special in any other way?

L: Yes. The Verb ’see’ may mean an action that is related to a moment, but also a chain of actions that suggets ’from start to finish’.

In different contexts, of course.

B: We have two Sentences to demonstrate this and they are ’I saw my neighbour build a house last year.’ and ’I saw my sister’s neighbour building a house last night.’

L: This is the situation for the first Sentence: I have a new neighbour, Joe, who bought a plot across the street, just opposite my house. It was in last January.

In March, they started the groundworks and by May, the foundations were ready.

I didn’t watch, but as far as I could see, they worked very intensively an at the end of November, Joe and his wife Helen invited me to their House-Warming Party.

B: It is clear and we expressed this meaning with a VERB of PERCEPTION + the BARE INFINITIVE for BUILD.

It is like a film.

L: Right. In contrast, the situation for the second Sentence is: I visited my sister last night and as i was walking along the street, I saw that a neighbour is in the middle of building his house.

I didn’t watch; I simply know form the sight what he is in the middle of doing.

B: It is again very clear and we expressed this different meaning with a VERB of PERCEPTION + the ING-FORM for BUILD.

It is like a snap-shot.

L: The next Sentence ’Do you see that blue bird fishing in the lake?’ demonstates very well that the action is ’Here and Now’ and we express it with the Present Simple Tense of the Verb of Perception.

B: Sure, but in the next, the Tense is Present Continuous: ’I’m looking at the big cranes unloading a huge liner in the harbour.’

How come? Why is it possible?

L: The Verb ’see’ is a Verb of Perception but the Verb ’look’ is not.

In other words, the Verb ’look’, and also the Verb ’listen’ are about voluntary actions; they are the result of out own choice.

To feel the difference, I can put it this way: ’seeing’ is a Faculty while ’looking’ is an Activity.

And exactly the same way, ’hearing’ is a Faculty while ’listening’  is an Activity.

B: In the next Sentence ’I heard my nephew practise the guitar from the first chord to the last concert.’, I guess, the ’from start to finish’ –idea is reflected, while in the one after next ’I heard my granddaughter reading aloud the poem for tomorrow.’ the ’There and Then’ –idea is expressed.

L: You are absolutely right. What comes next?

B: In the Sentence ’Can you hear what the speaker is saying?’ we express a ’Here and Now’ –idea with the help of ’Can’.

In contrast, in the Sentence after that ’I’m listening to some exciting news on the radio. ’ the Verb ’listen’ is about an involuntary action and it is rightfully in Present Continuous Tense.

L: Correct. What comes next?

B: ’Grandfather smells of garlic.’

We use Present Simple Tense but the meaning is limited to the ’Here and Now’ and it is exactly the same in the next Sentence ’Something smells burning.’ It is very clearly ’Here and Now’.

It is in clear contrast with ’My dog is smelling the lamp-post.’ where ’smelling’ is a synonym for ’sniffing’ and the use of the Present Continuous Tense is correct.

L: The Sentence ’The horses smelt the water from a mile off.’ is not exactly ’Here and Now’; it is more about a general capacity of all horses in sensing water form a distance.

B: The next Sentence ’The milk tastes sour.’ is definitely not about the taste of milk in general; it is more about the taste of this portion of milk this very moment.

Here we use Present Simple Tense but we mean ’Here and Now’ and it is exactly the same with the Sentence after next ’Can you taste the ginger in this cake?’

Here, we express the ’Here and Now’ with the help of ’Can’.

L: In ’My aunt was tasting the sauce and liked it a great deal.’ we use the Present Continuous Tense because it relates to an activity of checking the taste.

B: It is in clear contrast with ’Please taste this soup for salt.’.

The use of the Imperative makes it a ’Non-Routine Here and Now’.

 L: In the Sentence ’It feels like silk.’ we use Present Simple Tense but the meaning is clearly ’Here and Now’ because I’m under the impact of touching that material.

And it is exactly the same here: ’These sheets feel damp.’

B: In the Sentence ’I feel cold. Can you turn the heater on?’ I need an immediate action ’Here and Now’ because of the sensation of the temperature.

L: The sensation of the temperature is always momentary; we cannot sense the temperature as a routine.

B: The next Sentence ’The doctor was feeling the boy’s pulse on his temple.’ is completely different because it describes a physical contact and such a contact here means ’the doctor was taking the pulse’ or ’the doctor was counting the pulse-rate’.

L: The next three Sentences show examples of Verbs that belong to the Verbs of Perception because of the Mind-Activities in them.

They are on the borderline between Present Continuous Tense and Present Simple Tense. ’I noticed that John avoided mentioning Theresa’s name.’ and ’I have been observing Theo’s development for the past two months.’ and also ’The Chair recognized the Representative.’ [meaning let them address the Assembly]

The last two Sentences give examples of using Verbs of Perception in the Continuous Tense with a changed meaning. ’I’m seeing my friend off at the airport.’ [accompanying him] and ’Dr Bitter is hearing the case.’ [he is the Judge]

Sentence 051 Upload for Feb. 20, 2019

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Sentence 050 Let the cat out of the bag. Feb. 19, 2019

050 Everybody needs to relax sometimes.

050 I know someone who can help you.

050 I met somebody you met last night.

050 I’ve knocked three times but there isn’t anyone at home.

050 I’ve tried phoning but there is nobody in.

050 There is nothing int he bread-basket.

050 There isn’t anyone here who can help you.

Leslie: Here and Now we are dealing with ’ANYBODY’ and ’EVERYBODY’. Are they Singular or Plural?

ANYBODY [also Anyone] is an Indefinite Pronoun that is used to mean one person or more people;

it is not important which person or people we are talking about.

ANYBODY [also Anyone] is Singular.

EVERYBODY [also Everyone] is also an Indefinite Pronoun that refers to all members either of a defined group or a group in general.

EVERYBODY [and every derivative of Every-] is Singular.

 

’Everybody needs to relax sometimes.’

’I know someone who can help you.’

’I met somebody you met last night.’

’I’ve knocked three times but there isn’t anyone at home.’

’I’ve tried phoning but there is nobody in.’

’There is nothing int he bread-basket.’

’There isn’t anyone here who can help you.’

Sentence 050 Upload for Feb. 19, 2019

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Sentence 049 Let the cat out of the bag. Feb. 18, 2019

049 I joined the Navy to see the World; and what did I see? I saw the sea.

049 I went to the station yesterday to meet Jerry.

049 My lady friend has gone to town to do some shopping.

049 We sat down to try to get our breath back.

049 We’ve come in quietly so as not to disturb the lesson.

049 We’ve got to be there on time to get a good seat.

049 Why did you take a part-time job? I wanted to get some first-hand experiences.

Leslie: Here and Now, we are dealing with Adverbs of Purpose or Adverbs of Reason that answer the question WHY, and are most often expressed in FULL INFINITIVES.

They describe why something has occurred or will occur.

’I joined the Navy to see the World; and what did I see? I saw the sea.’

’Why did you join the Navy?’

To see the sea.’

’I went to the station yesterday to meet Jerry.’

’Why did you go to the station yesterday?’

To meet Jerry.’

’My lady friend has gone to town to do some shopping.’

’Why has she gone to town?’

To do some shopping.’

’We sat down to try to get our breath back.’

’Why did you sit down?’

To try to get our breath back.’

’We’ve come in quietly so as not to disturb the lesson.’

’Why have you come in so quietly?’

So as not to disturb the lesson.’

’We’ve got to be there on time to get a good seat.’

’Why have you got to be there on time?’

To get a good seat.’

’Why did you take a part-time job? I wanted to get some first-hand experiences.’

Sentence 049 Upload for Feb. 18, 2019

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