Sentence 048 Let the cat out of the bag. Feb. 17, 2019

048 Bruce is a policeman. He saw us last night. He is the policeman who saw us last night.

048 I didn’t enjoy myself very much at the party last night.

048 It is a pink Cadillac. We saw it last weekend. It is the pink Cadillac which we saw last weekend.

048 It is me, Leslie. Can I come and see you now?

048 Jeremy is a famous actor. We saw him on stage last night. He is the famous actor whom we saw on stage last night.

048 Meet Jill and Jack. Their father is Martin whom you know from the Chess Club.

048 Melanie wanted to know whose scarf it was.

048 Myrtill is a famous singer. We saw her yesterday. She is the famous singer whom we saw yesterday.

048 Our team will enter for the next competition.

048 Somebody just rang the doorbell.

048 Someone is at the door. Should I open it?

048 There are six of us in my family.

048 There is nothing more irritating than people who drop names.

048 There isn’t anybody in Room 202.

048 They are the new students. Did you meet them yesterday afternoon?

048 This is Roger. His wife is my piano teacher.

048 We are going to the beach tomorrow. Do you want to come with us?

048 You may not read my handwriting. I myself can’t read it sometimes.

048 You never know. Steve might be a Nobel Prize winner one day.

048 Your dinner is in the fridge. Just warm it up and eat it.

Leslie: Here and Now, we are going to concentrate on Nouns and their replacement by Pronouns.

We are going to try to identify the Antecedent of the Pronouns as well if / when it is possible.

’Bruce is a policeman. He saw us last night. He is the policeman who saw us last night.’

  • In the first Sentence, ’Bruce’ is a Proper Noun;
  • it is the Name of a Person and because of this it is Capitalized;
  • the Copula ’is’ links the Subject ’Bruce’ with the Subject Complement ’a policeman’;
  • the meaning of the Subject Complement is ’one policeman I don’t know or I haven’t mentioned before’;
  • the Indefinite Article ’a’ creates this meaning;
  • in the second Sentence, ’he’ is a Personal Pronoun;
  • the meaning of ’he’ is ’Bruce’;
  • in other words, ’Bruce’ is the Antecedent of ’he’;
  • ’he’ holds the meaning of ’Bruce’ since we can only use a Personal Pronoun if we can identify its Antecedent;
  • the Personal Pronoun ’he’ is in Subject Position in the second Sentence;
  • ’us’ is also a Personal Pronoun and it is in Object Position;
  • the meaning of ’us’ is ’me and my companion’;
  • in the third Sentence, we join the first and second Sentences together;
  • the Subject is ’he’ and the meaning is  the Antecedent ’Bruce’;
  • the third Sentence is a Complex Statement in which ’He is the policeman’ is the Main Clause and ’who saw us last night’ is a Subordinate Clause;
  • the first and second Sentences have Common Subjects and we join the two Sentences together through these Common Subjects;
  • in the Main Clause we turn the Indefinite Article ’a’ into the Definite Article ’the’ because the meaning here is ’the policeman I have mentioned’already;
  • ’he’, the Subject of the Second Sentence is turned into the Relative Pronoun ’who’ and that acts as the Conjunction in the Complex Statement;
  • the Antecedent of ’who’ is also ’Bruce’.

’I didn’t enjoy myself very much at the party last night.’ 

  • In this Sentence, ’I’ is a Personal Pronoun;
  • the Direct Object is ’myself’;
  • ’myself’ is a Reflexive pronoun and we use it to say that the Subject and the Direct Object are the Same Person;
  • in other words, the Actor and the Person Acted Upon are identical.

’It is a pink Cadillac. We saw it last weekend. It is the pink Cadillac which we saw last weekend.’ 

  • In the first Sentence, ’it’ is  Pronoun and it acts as an Empty Subject;
  • we know it is an Empty Subject because it is impossible to make a Subject Question about the Subject ’it’;
  • the Copula ’is’ links the Empty Subject with the Subject Complement ’a pink Cadillac’;
  • in the second Sentence, ’we’ is  Personal Pronoun and it means ’I and my companion’;
  • the Verb ’see’ is Transitive and the Object is ’it’;
  • the meaning of the Object is ’a pink Cadillac’, the Subject Complement of the first Sentence;
  • ’a pink Cadillac’ is the Antecedent of the Object ’it’;
  • the third Sentence is a Complex Statement, with ’It is the pink Cadillac’ as the Main Clause and ’which we saw last weekend’ as the Subordinate Clause;
  • in the third Sentence, we combine the Empty Subject of the first Sentence with the Object ’it’ of the second Sentence since they mean the same;
  • the Conjunction is the Pronoun ’which’ that introduces the Relative Clause ’we saw last weekend’.

’It is me, Leslie. Can I come and see you now?’ 

  • In ththe first Sentence, ’it’ is a special kind of Empty Subject;
  • we call it Introductory Subject;
  • we use it here to give extra emphasis to the Subject Complement ’me’;
  • the two parts are linked together with the Copula ’is’;
  • the first Sentence is not combined with the second here.

’Jeremy is a famous actor. We saw him on stage last night. He is the famous actor whom we saw on stage last night.’ 

  • In the first Sentence, ’Jeremy’ is the Subject, ’is’ is the Copula, and ’a famous actor’ is the Subject Complement;
  • the Subject is a Proper Noun, a name with Capital Letter;
  • the Subject Complement is an Adjectival Noun;
  • the Adjectival Noun is introduced by an Indefinite Article;
  • ’a famous actor’ means ’one famous acrtor I haven’t mentioned before’;
  • in the second Sentence, ’we’ is a Personal Pronoun meaning ’I and my companion’;
  • ’see’ is a Transitive Verb and the Object is ’him’;
  • the Antecedent of ’him’ is ’Jeremy’, the Subject of the first Sentence;
  • the third Sentence is a Complex Statement with ’He is the famous actor’ as the Main Clause and ’whom we saw on stage last night’ is the Subordinae Clause;
  • in the third Sentence, we link the Subject of the first Sentence with the Object of the Second Sentence;
  • the Conjunction is the Pronoun ’whom’ and it introduces the Relative Clause ’we saw on stage last week’;
  • we use ’whom’ here because we link the Subject of the first Sentence with the object of the second Sentence.

’Meet Jill and Jack. Their father is Martin whom you know from the Chess Club.’ 

  • In the first Sentence, the Subject [you] is Hidden because it is an Imperative Sentence;
  • there is no pronoun here;
  • ’Jill and Jack’ is the Compound Object;
  • in the second Sentence, ’their’ is a Possessive Pronoun;
  • its Base Form is ’they’;
  • the Antecedent for ’they’ is ’Jill and Jack’;
  • the Antecedent for ’their’ is ’Jill and Jack’s’ so the meaning of ’their father’ is ’Jill and Jack’s father’;
  • the Subject is ’their father’, the Copula is ’is’, and the Subject Complement is ’Martin’;
  • the second Sentence is a Complex Statement;
  • ’Their father is Martin’ is the Main Clause and ’whom you know from the Chess Club’ is the Subordinate Clause;
  • the Conjunction is ’whom’ because we link the Object of the first Sentence with the Subject of the Main Clause in the second Sentence.

’Melanie wanted to know whose scarf it was.’ 

  • In this Sentence, there are two Pronouns: ’whose’ and ’it’;
  • the Sentence contains an Embedded Indirect Question;
  • if we reconstruct the Direct Question, it is ’Whose scarf was it?’;
  • it is a Direct Question and we ask because we are looking for the owner;
  • ’whose’ is an Interrogative Pronoun;
  • if we reconstruct the Positive Statement, it may sound like: ’It is my scarf.’;
  • ’it’ is an Empty Subject, ’is’ is the Copula, and ’my scarf’ is the ’Subject Complement’;
  • now, we can go back to the Sentence with an Embedded Indirect Question and concluse that ’whose’ is an Interrogative Pronoun searching for ownership, and ’it’ is the Empty Subject.

’Myrtill is a famous singer. We saw her yesterday. She is the famous singer whom we saw yesterday.’ 

  • In the first Sentence, ’Myrtill’ is the Subject;
  • it is a Proper Noun, a Name with a Capital Letter;
  • ’is’ is a Copula;
  • ’a famous singer’ is the Subject Complement;
  • it is an Adjectival Phrase;
  • it is introduced by an Indefinite Article meaning ’one famous singer I don’t know or haven’t mentioned before’;
  • in the second Sentence ’we’ is a Pronoun meaning ’I and my companion’;
  • ’see’ is a Transitive Verb and the Direct Object is ’her’;
  • the Antecedent of ’her’ is ’Myrtill’ meaning that the Subject of the first Sentence corresponds to the Object of the second Sentence;
  • the third Sentence is a Complex Statement;
  • ’She is the famous singer’ is the Main Clause and ’whom we saw yesterday’ is the Subordinate Clause;
  • the two Clauses are joined together by the Relative pronoun ’whom’
  • we use ’whom’ because we link a Subject and an Object together;
  • in the Main Clause we use a Definitie Article in ’the famous singer’ because here we can refer to an ealier mentioning.

 ’Our team will enter for the next competition.’ 

  • In this Sentence, ’our’ is a Possessive Pronoun;
  • as an Adjective, it modifies the Noun ’team’.

’Somebody just rang the doorbell.’ 

  • In this Sentence, ’somebody’ is an Indefinite Pronoun meaning an unnamed or unidentified person.

’Someone is at the door. Should I open it?’ 

  • In the first Sentence, ’someone’ is an Indefinite Pronoun;
  • ’is’ is a Copula;
  • ’at the door’ is a Prepositional Phrase;
  • ’the door’ is a Noun Phrase;
  • the preposition ’at’ turns the Noun Phrase ’the door’ into an Adverb of Place ’at the door’;
  • in the second Sentence, ’it’ is a Pronoun;
  • its Antecedent is the Noun Phrase ’the door’ form the first Sentence.

’There are six of us in my family.’ 

  • In this Sentence, ’there’ is a Pronoun and it is the Dummy Subject;
  • ’are’ is the Copula;
  • ’six of us’ is the Subject Complement;
  • ’us’ is a Pronoun and it is the Object of the Preposition;
  • ’six of us’ is a Prepositional Phrase.

’There is nothing more irritating than people who drop names.’ 

  • In this Sentence, there are three Pronouns:
  • ’there’ as a Dummy Subject,
  • ’nothing’ meaning ’not anything’, and
  • ’who’ that introduces a Relative Clause.

’There isn’t anybody in Room 202.’ 

  • In this Sentence, there are two Pronouns:
  • ’there’ as a Dummy Subject, and
  • ’anybody’ that is an Indefinite Pronoun used in Negative Sentences or in Questions to mean one or more people.

’They are the new students. Did you meet them yesterday afternoon?’ 

  • In the first Sentence, ’they’ is a Pronoun and it is the Subject;
  • its meaning comes from the Subject Complement ’the new students’;
  • the Antecedent for ’they’ is ’the new students’;
  • in the second Sentence, ’them’ is a Pronoun and it is in Object Position;
  • the Antecedent for ’them’ is the Subject Complement of the first Sentence;
  • the meaning of ’them’ is ’the new students’.

’This is Roger. His wife is my piano teacher.’ 

  • In the first Sentence, ’this’ is a Pronoun;
  • it is the Subject and its use indicates that Roger has already been mentioned and he is known by both the Speaker and the Hearer;
  • in the second Sentence, ’his’ is a Possessive Pronoun and as an Adjective, it modifies the Noun ’wife’;
  • the Antecedent for ’his’ is Roger the Subject Complement in the first Sentence;
  • ’my’ is a Possessive Pronoun that modifies the Adjectival Phrase  ’piano teacher’.

’We are going to the beach tomorrow. Do you want to come with us?’ 

  • In the first Sentence, ’we’ means ’ I and my companion’;
  • in the second Sentence, ’you’ is a Personal Pronoun, meaning the Partner Speaker in the conversation;
  • ’us’ is the Object of the Preposition ’with’;
  • the Antecedent for ’us’ is ’we’ the Subject of the first Sentence.

’You may not read my handwriting. I myself can’t read it sometimes.’ 

  • In the first Sentence, ’you’ is a Pronoun used to address the Partner Speaker;
  • ’my’ is a Possessive Pronoun;
  • as an Adjective, it modifies the Noun ’handwriting’;
  • ’I’ is a Personal Pronoun and its meaning is emphasized by the Intensice pronoun ’myself’;
  • [’myself’ is NOT a Reflexive Pronoun since it is not in Object Position; it is Part of the Subject]
  • ’it’ is a Pronoun in Object Position;
  • its Antecedent is ’my handwriting’ from the first Sentence.

’You never know. Steve might be a Nobel Prize winner one day.’ 

  • In this Sentence, ’you’ is a Personal Pronoun;
  • it acts as a General Subject;
  • there is no Pronoun in the second Sentence.

’Your dinner is in the fridge. Just warm it up and eat it.’ 

  • In the first Sentence, ’your’ is a Possessive Pronoun that modifies the Noun ’dinner’;
  • in the second Sentence, ’it’ is a Pronoun;
  • ’it’ is the Object for both the Phrasal Verb ’warm up’ and the Verb ’eat’;
  • the Object Pronoun ’it’ comes between the Verb ’warm’ and its Particle ’up’ because that is the Proper Place for a Pronoun.

Sentence 048 Upload for Feb. 17, 2019

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Sentence 047 Let the cat out of the bag. Feb. 16, 2019

047 After a hot day, the night grew extremely cold.

 

047 Almost everybody has become ill during the weekend.

 

047 Betty looks ill; she must stay in bed for a day or teo.

 

047 It is the Opening ceremony of the World Open Snooker Championship.

 

047 Jimmy feels very tired at the end of the training.

 

047 My great niece got excited by her new Barbie Doll.

 

047 That room is not very clean.

 

047 The ice-cream tastes strawberry.

 

047 There is no room to swing a cat.

 

047 This is the best restaurant in town.

 

047 This wine smells Tokaj. Am I right?

 

047 You seem upset. What has gone wrong?

 

Leslie: Here and Now we are dealing with the Copula or Link Word . The Copula is a Linguistic Equation Sign between the two parts of the Subject.

 

’After a hot day, the night grew extremely cold.’

 

  • In this Sentence, the COPULA is ’GROW’ that connects the Noun Phrase ’the night’ and the Adjectival Phrase ’extremely cold’;
  • the COPULA is a Linguistic Equation Sign between the Subject and the Subject Complement.

’Almost everybody has become ill during the weekend.’

 

  • In this Sentence, the COPULA is ’BECOME’ that connects the Pronominal Phrase ’almost everybody’ and the Adjective ’ill’;
  • the COPULA is a Linguistic Equation Sign between the Subject and the Subject Complement.

’Betty looks ill; she must stay in bed for a day or teo.’

 

  • In this Sentence, the COPULA is ’BE’ that connects the Proper Noun ’Betty’ and the Adjective ’ill’;
  • the COPULA is a Linguistic Equation Sign between the Subject and the Subject Complement.

’It is the Opening ceremony of the World Open Snooker Championship.’

 

  • In this Sentence, the COPULA is ’BE’ that connects the Neuter personal pronoun ’it’ and the Complex Noun Phrase ’the Opening Ceremony of the World Open Snooker Championship’;
  • the COPULA is a Linguistic Equation Sign between the Subject and the Subject Complement.

’Jimmy feels very tired at the end of the training.’

 

  • In this Sentence, the COPULA is ’FEEL’ that connects the Proper Noun ’Jimmy’ and the Adjectival phrase ’very tired’;
  • the COPULA is a Linguistic Equation Sign between the Subject and the Subject Complement.

’My great niece got excited by her new Barbie Doll.’

 

  • In this Sentence, the COPULA is ’GET’ that connects the Noun Phrase ’my great niece’ and the Past Participle ’excited’;
  • the COPULA is a Linguistic Equation Sign between the Subject and the Subject Complement.

’That room is not very clean.’

 

  • In this Sentence, the COPULA is ’BE’ that connects the Noun Phrase ’that room’ and the Adjectival Phrase ’not very clean’;
  • the COPULA is a Linguistic Equation Sign between the Subject and the Subject Complement.

’The ice-cream tastes strawberry.’

 

  • In this Sentence, the COPULA is ’TASTE’ that connects the Noun Phrase ’the ice-cream’ and the Noun ’strawberry’;
  • the COPULA is a Linguistic Equation Sign between the Subject and the Subject Complement.

’There is no room to swing a cat.’

 

  • In this Sentence, the COPULA is ’BE’ that connects the Pronoun ’there’ and the Complex Idiomatic Noun Phrase ’no room to swing a cat’;
  • the COPULA is a Linguistic Equation Sign between the Dummy Subject and the Subject Complement.

’This is the best restaurant in town.’

 

  • In this Sentence, the COPULA is ’BE’ that connects the Pronoun ’this’ and the Noun Phrase ’the best reastaurant’;
  • the COPULA is a Linguistic Equation Sign between the Empty Subject and the Subject Complement.

’This wine smells Tokaj. Am I right?’

 

  • In this Sentence, the COPULA is ’SMELL’ that connects the Noun Phrase ’this wine’ and the Noun ’Tokaj’;
  • the COPULA is a Linguistic Equation Sign between the Subject and the Subject Complement.

’You seem upset. What has gone wrong?’

 

  • In this Sentence, the COPULA is ’SEEM’ that connects the Personal pronoun ’you’ and the Adjective ’upset’;
  • the COPULA is a Linguistic Equation Sign between the Subject and the Subject Complement.

Sentence 047 Upload for Feb. 16, 2019

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Sentence 046 Let the cat out of the bag. Feb. 15, 2019

046 Al Capone went to prison for cheating on taxes.

 

046 Camp David is in Catoctin Mountain Park, in Maryland.

 

046 Cheap flats are few and far between in university towns.

 

046 Foreign Relations have cooled down between my home country and the USA.

 

046 Greg went to college for a BA and then to university for his MA.

 

046 Happiness means pleasant emotions and / or satisfaction.

 

046 It’s raining cats and dogs.

 

046 Jennifer’s popularity has vanished into thin air.

 

046 Jungles, rainforests and deserts are major ecological communities for characteristic plants and animals.

 

046 Kathy walks on air after a successful concert.

 

046 Miss Wizard teaches Class 3B every morning.

 

046 Mr Haycraft was appointed Director General.

 

046 My birthday is in December.

 

046 My mother’s name is Elisabeth.

 

046 Sadness is an emotional pain.

 

046 School starts on the 1st of September.

 

046 Some plants grow best in acidic soil.

 

046 Summer is my favourite season for canoeing.

 

046 There is an English saying: ’Every mile is two in winter.’

 

Leslie: Here and Now, we are going to deal with the ’Zero Atricle’ or ’Zero Determiner’.

 

Al Capone went to prison for cheating on taxes.’

 

  • In this Sentence, we use Zero Articele with ’Al Capone’ because it is a name of a person, with ’prison’ because it is common expression of place, and with ’taxes’ because it is a Plural Noun.

Camp David is in Catoctin Mountain Park, in Maryland.’

 

  • In this Sentence, we use Zero Article with ’Camp David’ because it is a Proper Noun with Capitalized Name, with ’Catoctin Mountain Park’ because it is a Geographical Name, and with ’Maryland’ because it is the Name of a State.

’Cheap flats are few and far between in university towns.’

 

  • In this Sentence, we use Zero Article with ’flats’ because it is a Plural Noun, and with ’towns’ because it is part of a common expression of place.

Foreign Relations have cooled down between my home country and the USA.’

 

  • In this Sentence, we use Zero Article with ’Foreign Relations’ because it is a Proper Noun with Capitalized Name.

Greg went to college for a BA and then to university for his MA.’

 

  • In this Sentence, we use Zero Article with ’college’ and ’university’ because they are Names of Learning Institutions.

Happiness means pleasant emotions and / or satisfaction.’

 

  • In this Sentence, we use Zero Article with ’happiness’ because it is an Uncountable Noun that is used with an indefinite meaning, with ’emotions’ because it is a Plural Noun, and with ’satisfaction’ because it is an Uncountable Noun that is used with an indefinitie meaning.

’It’s raining cats and dogs.’

 

  • In this Sentence, we use Zero Article with ’cats’ and ’dogs’ because they are Plural Nouns.

Jennifer’s popularity has vanished into thin air.’

 

  • In this Sentence, we use Zero Article with ’Jennifer’ because it is the Name of a Person, with ’popularity’ because it is an Uncountable Noun that is used with an indefinite meaning, and with ’air’ because it is used in an Idiomatic Expression with a special meaning.

Jungles, rainforests and deserts are major ecological communities for characteristic plants and animals.’

 

  • In this Sentence, we use Zero Article with ’jungles’, ’rainforests’, ’deserts’, ’communities’, ’plants’, and ’animals’ because they are all Plural Nouns.

Kathy walks on air after a successful concert.’

 

  • In this Sentence, we use Zero Article with ’Kathy’ because it is a Proper Noun, and with ’air’ because it is used in an Idiomatic Expression with a special meaning.

Miss Wizard teaches Class 3B every morning.’

 

  • In this Sentence, we use Zero Article with ’Miss Wizard’ because it is a Proper Noun, with ’Class 3B’ because it is the name of a group with a plural meaning, and with ’morning’ because it is a Part of a Day.

Mr Haycraft was appointed Director General.’

 

  • In this Sentence, we use Zero Article with ’Mr Haycraft’ because it is a Proper Noun with a Capitalized Name, and with ’Director General’ because it is the Name of a Title.

My birthday is in December.’

 

  • In this Sentence,  we use Zero Article with ’birthday’ because it is modified by the Possessive Pronoun ’my’, and with ’December’ because it is the name of a month.

My mother’s name is Elisabeth.’

 

  • In this Sentence, we use Zero Article with ’mother’ because it is modified by the Possessive Pronoun ’my’, and with ’Elisabeth’ because it is a Proper Noun.

Sadness is an emotional pain.’

 

  • In this Sentence, we use Zero Article with ’sadness’ because it is an Uncountable Noun with an indefinite meaning.

School starts on the 1st of September.’

 

  • In this Sentence, we use Zero Article with ’school’ because it is a learning institute, and with ’September’ because it is the name of a month.

’Some plants grow best in acidic soil.’

 

  • In this Sentence, we use Zero Article with ’plants’ because it is a Plural Noun, and with ’soil’ because it is an Uncountable Noun with an indefinite meaning.

Summer is my favourite season for canoeing.’

 

  • In this Sentence, we use Zero Article with ’summer’ because it is the name of a season, with ’season’ because it is modified by the Adjective ’favourite’ and by the Possessive Pronoun ’my’, and by the Gerund ’canoeing’ because it is modified by the Preposition before the Gerund.

’There is an English saying: ’Every mile is two in winter.’

 

  • In this Sentence, we use Zero Article with ’mile’ because it is modified by the Adjective ’every’, and with ’winter’ because it is the name of a season.

Sentence 046 Upload for Feb. 15, 2019

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Sentence 045 Let the cat out of the bag. Feb. 14, 2019

045 Alex paid the shop-keeper € 11.20.

 

045 Bring your tablet to me please.

 

045 His uncle has left Jack a lot of money.

 

045 I love Jane because she did me a big favour.

 

045 I owe my aunt a lot of money.

 

045 I’ve brought this boksz of Belgian chocolate for you.

 

045 I’ve ordered some chocolate pancakes for you.

 

045 Jessica showed her boyfriend her new pair of shoes.

 

045 Joseph offered me a glass of wine.

 

045 Miss Sarah is teaching English to class 3B.

 

045 Mr Taylor has given his son some advice.

 

045 Mrs Willow sold all her books to me before she went back to England.

 

045 Pass the catchup to your grandpa.

 

045 Prince Philip handed me the prize.

 

045 Read me the first chapter of ’Catcher in the rye ’.

 

045 The old lady next door promised €200 to the finder of her pet dog.

 

045 The shop-assistant chose a nice table-cloth for me.

 

045 The waiter brought a pint of beer to the man at the next table.

 

Leslie: Here and Now, we are dealing with Sentences in which there are two Objects, one Direct Object, and one Indirect Object.

 

We can call the Direct Object + Indirect Object or the Indirect Object + Direct Object the Verb Complement.

 

The one that comes nearer to the end of the Sentence is a contrast with something else [IO] or somebody else [DO].

 

’Alex paid the shop-keeper € 11.20.’ [cash, not a cheque]

 

  • Alex paid € 11.20 to the shop-keeper. [to the shop-keeper, not the owner of the shop]

’Bring your tablet to me please.’ [to me, not to me, not to Mr Jones, the ICT teacher]

 

  • Bring me your tablet please. [your tablet, not your laptop]

’His uncle has left Jack a lot of money.’ [a lot of money, not his house]

 

  • His uncle has left a lot of money to Jack. [to Jack, not to Jill, his sister]

’I love Jane because she did me a big favour.’ [a big favour, not just something small]

 

  • I love Jane because she did a big favour to me. [to me, not to my younger brother]

’I owe my aunt a lot of money.’ [a lot of money, not just a few dollars]

 

  • I owe a lot of money to my aunt. [to my aunt, not to my uncle]

’I’ve brought this box of Belgian chocolate for you.’ [for you, not for your brother]

 

  • I’ve brought you this box of Belgian chocolate. [this box of Belgian chocolate, not a bottle of champagne]

’I’ve ordered some chocolate pancakes for you.’ [for you, not for myself]

 

  • I’ve ordered you some chocolate pancakes. [some chocolate pancakes, not lemon ice-cream]

’Jessica showed her boyfriend her new pair of shoes.’ [her new pair of shoes, not her new hat]

 

  • Jessica showed her new pair of shoes to her boyfriend. [to her boyfriend, not to her mother]

’Joseph offered me a glass of wine.’ [a glass of wine, not a glass of whisky]

 

  • Joseph offered a glass of wine for me. [for me, not for the other guests]

’Miss Sarah is teaching English to class 3B.’ [to class 3B, not to class 3A]

 

  • Miss Sarah teaching class 3B English. [English, not French]

’Mr Taylor has given his son some advice.’ [some advice, not some pocker money]

 

  • Mr Taylor has given some advice to his son. [to his son, not to his daughter]

’Mrs Willow sold all her books to me before she went back to England.’ [to me, not to the second-hand bookshop]

 

  • Mrs Willow sold me all her books before she went back to England. [all her books, not her magazines]

’Pass the catchup to your grandpa.’ [to your grandpa, not to me]

 

  • Pass your grandpa the catchup. [the catchup, not the mustard]

’Prince Philip handed me the prize.’ [the prize, not the certificate that goes with the prize]

 

  • Prince Philip handed the prize to me. [to me, not to the Director General]

’Read me the first chapter of ’Catcher in the rye ’.’ [the first chapter, not just the first paragraph]

 

  • Read the first chapter of ’Catcher in the rye’ to me. [to me, not to the whole class]

’The old lady next door promised €200 to the finder of her pet dog.’ [to the finder of her pet dog, not the dog-catcher]

 

  • The old lady next door promised the finder of her pet dog € 200. [€ 200, not just a warm handshake and a ’thank you’]

’The shop-assistant chose a nice table-cloth for me.’ [for me, not for my lady friend]

 

  • The shop-assistant chose me a nice table-cloth. [a nice table-cloth, not some curtain material]

’The waiter brought a pint of beer to the man at the next table.’ [to the man at the next table, not to me who ordered it]

 

  • The waiter brought the man at the next table a pint of beer. [a pint of beer, not a diet coke the man ordered]

Sentence 045 Upload for Feb. 14, 2019

Select the bad one(s); which is the worst?

We'll let the cat out of the bag tomorrow.

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Sentence 044 Let the cat out of the bag. Feb. 13, 2019

044 ’We are such stuff as dreams are made on.’  Shakespeare

 

044 After the exam, I was so tired, I fell asleep the moment my head touched the pillow.

 

044 I have never seen such gorgeous flowers.

 

044 It wasn’t such a good holiday as we all thought it would be.

 

044 Lili is such a sweet girl, everybody wants to be in her team.

 

044 Peter is so busy at the university, he can rarely come to the English class.

 

044 The fifth question was so difficult, I couldn’t make head or tail of it.

 

044 The president has only such powers as are given to him by the Constitution.

 

Leslie: Here and Now, we are dealing with ’SO’, ’SUCH’ and ’SUCH A’.

 

’We are such stuff as dreams are made on.’  Shakespeare

 

  • In this Sentence, ’SUCH’  is an Adjective that modifies ’STUFF ’ that is an Uncountable Noun;
  • the most common meaning of ’STUFF’ is ’MATERIAL’ but Shakespeare uses it with the meaning ’QUALITIES’ or ’HUMANS WITH SPECIAL QUALITIES’;
  • in this Sentence, ’SUCH’ is followed by ’AS’ and not by the Relative Pronoun ’THAT’ or ’WHO’.

’After the exam, I was so tired, I fell asleep the moment my head touched the pillow.’

 

  • In this Sentence, ’SO’ is an Adverb that modifies, i. e. emphasizes the Adjective ’TIRED’.

’I have never seen such gorgeous flowers.’

 

  • In this Sentence, ’SUCH’ is an Adverb that emphasizes the Adjective ’GORGEOUS’ and modifies the Plural Adjectival Noun ’GORGEOUS FLOWERS’.

’It wasn’t such a good holiday as we all thought it would be.’

 

  • In this Sentence, ’SUCH’ is an ’ADVERB’ that emphasizes the Adjective ’GOOD’ and modifies the Singular Adjectival Noun ’A GOOD HOLIDAY’;
  • the Indefinite Article ’A’  belongs to the Singular Noun ’HOLIDAY’ rather than to the Adverb ’SUCH’.

’Lili is such a sweet girl, everybody wants to be in her team.’

 

  • In this Sentence, ’SUCH’ is an Adverb that emphasizes the Adjective ’SWEET’ and modifies the Singular Adjectival Noun ’A SWEET GIRL’;
  • the Indefinite Article ’A’ belongs to the Singular Noun ’GIRL’ rather than to the Adverb ’SUCH’.

’Peter is so busy at the university, he can rarely come to the English class.’

 

  • In this Sentence, ’SO’ is an Adverb that modifies, i. e. emphasizes the Adjective ’BUSY’.

’The fifth question was so difficult, I couldn’t make head or tail of it.’

 

  • In this Sentence, ’SO’ is an Adverb that modifies, i. e. emphasizies the Adjective ’DIFFICULT’.

’The president has only such powers as are given to him by the Constitution.’

 

  • In this Sentence, ’SUCH’ is an Adjective that modifies and emphasizies the Plural Noun ’POWERS’.

Sentence 044 Upload for Feb. 13, 2019

Select the bad one(s); which is the worst?

We'll let the cat out of the bag tomorrow.

If you have any questions, please don't hesitate to raise them.

If you have any problems in reading the Blue Screenshots, please tell me and I can send you pdf files via email or Skype.

This system doesn't support the pdf format.

Sentence 043 Let the cat out of the bag. Feb. 12, 2019

043 My lawyer drew up a contract to buy the house last week.

 

043 Prices are going up all the time.

 

043 Put your hand up if you know the answer.

 

043 The Bomb Disposal Squad blew up the old German bomb in a deserted car park.

 

043 The detective made up for the building.

 

043 The dolphins have to come up for air.

 

043 This is for you – it’s a little present.

 

043 We also have to give advice for first-time buyers.

 

043 We have no running water at the weekend plot – we have to draw up water from the well.

 

043 You will find Myrtill’s house up at the top of the street.

 

Leslie: Here and Now we are going to contrast Prepositions and Particles.

 

Prepositions are in ’PRE POSITION’, i. e. standing before Nouns.

 

Particles belong to, and stand after, VERBS; most often they modify the meaning of VERBS.

 

 

’My lawyer drew up a contract to buy the house last week.’

 

  • In this Sentence, ’UP’ is a Particle after the Verb ’DRAW’ and and modifies the meaning of ’DRAW’ into the Phrasal Verb  ’draw up’ meaning ’WRITE’ or ’PUT TOGETHER’;
  • ’TO’ is an Infinitive Marker and the Full Infinitive ’TO BUY’ acts as an Adverb of Purpose.

’Prices are going up all the time.’

 

  • In this Sentence, ’UP’ is a Particle that modifies the Verb ’GO’ into the Phrasal Verb ’go up’ meaning ’INCREASE’.

’Put your hand up if you know the answer.’

 

  • In this Sentence, ’UP’ is a Particle that modifies the Transitive Verb ’PUT’ into the Phrasal Verb ’put up’ meaning ’RAISE’.

’The Bomb Disposal Squad blew up the old German bomb in a deserted car park.’

 

  • In this Sentence, ’UP’ is a Particle that modifies the Verb ’BLOW’ into the Phrasal Verb ’BLOW UP’ meaning ’EXPLODE’;
  • ’IN’ is a Preposition in a ’PRE-POSITION’ to the Adjectival Phrase ’A DESERTED CAR PARK’ thus turning it into an Adverb of Place.

’The detective made up for the building.’

 

  • In this Sentence, ’UP’ and ’FOR’ are Particles that modify the Verb ’MAKE’ into the Phrasal Verb ’MAKE UP FOR’ meaning ’APPROACH’ or ’GO TOWARDS’.

’The dolphins have to come up for air.’

 

  • In this Sentence, ’TO’ is an Infinitive Marker that makes the Verb ’HAVE’ an equivalent of ’MUST’;
  • ’UP’ is a Particle that modifies the Verb ’COME’ into the Phrasal Verb ’COME UP’ meaning ’RISE’;
  • ’FOR’ is a Preposition in a ’PRE-POSITION’ to the Noun ’AIR’ thus making it the Object of the Infinitive and with that the Object in the Sentence;
  • ’FOR AIR’ is in the Accusative Case;
  • by the way, if it is not about dolphins, the Phrasal Verb – Verb Phrase ’TO COME UP FOR AIR ’ has a special meaning: ’TAKE A BREAK’.

’This is for you – it’s a little present.’

 

  • In this Sentence, ’FOR’ is a Preposition in a ’PRE-POSITION’ for the Personal Pronoun ’YOU’ thus making ’FOR YOU’ the Direct Object in the Accusative Case.

’We also have to give advice for first-time buyers.’

 

  • In this Sentence, ’TO’ is an Infinitive Marker that makes the Verb ’HAVE’ an equivalaent of ’MUST’;
  • ’FOR’ is a Preposition in a ’PRE-POSITION’ to the Adjectival Phrase ’FIRST-TIME BUYERS’ thus making ’FOR FIRST-TIME BUYERS’ the Direct Object in the Accusative Case.

’We have no running water at the weekend plot – we have to draw up water from the well.’

 

  • In this Sentence, ’AT’ is a Preposition in a ’PRE-POSITION’ for the Noun Phrase ’THE WEEKEND PLOT’ thus making ’AT THE WEEKEND PLOT’ the Adverb of Place that modifies the Verb ’HAVE’;
  • ’TO’ is an Infinitive Marker that makes the Verb ’HAVE’ an equivalent of ’MUST’;
  • ’UP’ is a Particle that modifies the Verb ’DRAW’ into ’DRAW UP’ meaning ’LIFT’;
  • ’FROM’ is a Preposition in a ’PRE-POSITION’ for the Noun Phrase ’THE WELL’ thus making ’FROM THE WELL’ the Adverb of Place or the Adverb of Origin for the Verb ’HAVE’ and the Infinitive Phrase ’TO DRAW UP’.