24 AFs Description in Blog Feb. 3, 2019

You must see the doctor with your headache.

’Must’, along with the other 23, is one of the Anomalous Finites.

It belongs to The Group of Five Soloists, i. e. it is Not a Member of a Family.

It means that it doesn’t have any structural relatives and it cannot be replaced by another Anomalous Finite if / when the Time changes from Future to Present, or from Non-Past to Past.

’Must’ is a Red Jump Word and a Friend of Not.

If we want to keep the original meaning, ’Must’ can only be made Past by using ’Perfect Infinitive’ instead of the ’Infinitive’.

If the Speech Intent is Deduction, ’Must’ can only be made Negative by using ’Can’t’.

Halfway between ’Must’ and ’Can’t’ we can use ’May’.

 

Applicants to this job should be in good health.

’Should’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a Member of the ’Will Family’.

’Should’ is a Red Jump Word and a Friend of Not.

It can only be made Past with the passage of Time if we use ’Perfect Infinitive’ instead of the ’Infinitive’.

 

At the Chinese market, you can buy a bag full of food for less than 15 euros.

’Can’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a Member of the ’Can Family’.

’Can’ is a Red Jump Word and a Friend of Not.

With the passage of Time, it can be replaced by ’Could’, and also by ’May’ or ’Might’ from within the same Family if the Language Register changes.

 

Dorothy always does her homejoy right after class.

The ’Does’ in this Sentence is NOT one of the 24 Anomalous Finites.

It is Not a Jump Word and it is Not a Friend of Not. It is an Orange Verb.

With this ’Does’, we can neither turn the Sentence ’Dorothy always does her homejoy right after class.’ into a Question, nor make it Negative.

To be able to ask Questions or make Negative Sentences, we have to break up ’Does’ [Orange Verb] into ’Does’ [Red Jump Word] + ’Do’ [Yellow Infinitive].

 

I am the youngest in my family.

’Am’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a Member of the ’Be Family’.

’Am’ is a Red jump Word and a Friend of Not.

With the change in the Person in Dialogues, ’Am’ can be replaced by ’Are’ from the same Family.

With the passage of Time, ’Am’ can be replaced by ’Was’ from the same Family.

 

I could play football very well when I was in the secondary school.

’Could’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a Member of the ’Can Family’.

’Could’ is a Red Jump Word and a Friend of Not.

’Could’ can only be made Past with the passage of Time if we use Perfect Infinitive instead of Infinitive.

 

I do a lot of exercises every day.

The ’Do’ in this Sentence is NOT one of the 24 Anomalous Finites.

It is NOT a Jump Word and it is NOT a Friend of Not. It is an Orange Verb.

With this ’Do’ we can neither turn the Sentence ’I do a lot of exercises every day.’ into a Question, nor make it Negative.

To be able to ask Questions or make Negative Sentences, we have to break up ’Do’ [Orange Verb] into ’Do’ [Red Jump Word] + ’Do [Yellow Infinitive].’

 

I have been to Rome five times so far.

’Have’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a Member of the ’Have Family’.

’Have’ is a Red Jump Word and a Friend of Not.

’Have’ is used to form the Perfect Tenses and also to express a kind of Possessive.

’Have’ can be replaced by ’Has’ with a change in Person, or by ’Had’ with the passage of Time, both from within the same Family.

 

I used to be a policeman.

’Used’ is originally one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is in the Group of 5 Soloists, i. e. it is Not a Member of a Family.

It means that it doesn’t have any structural relatives and it cannot be replaced by another Anomalous Finite with a change in Number or Person, or with the passage of Time.

’Used’ used to be used as a Red Jump Word and we used to make a Question from the Sentence ’I used to be a policeman.’ like ’Used you to be a policeman?’

’Used’ used to be a Friend of Not and the Negative Sentence used to sound like ’I usedn’t to be a policeman.’

All this belongs to the Past. In our Modern Time, we use ’Used’ as an Orange Verb and we break it up into ’Did’ [Red Jump Word] + ’Use’ [Yellow Infinitive] to make Questions.

We also break up ’Used’ [Orange Verb] into ’Did’ [Red Friend of Not] + ’Use’ [Yellow Infinitive] to make a Negative Sentence.

The use of ’Used’ is limited to Past Time and it has no Non-Past Time or Future Time equivalent.

 

Mr and Mrs Wing are teachers at the local elementary school.

’Are’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a Member of the ’Be Family’.

It is a Red Jump Word and a Friend of Not.

With a change in Person or Number, ’Are’ can be replaced by ’Am’ or ’Is’, and with the passage of Time it can be replaced by ’Was’ or ’Were’, all from within the same ’Be Family’.

 

My friend may come over to play chess tonight.

’May’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a Member of the ’Can Family’.

It is a Red Jump Word and a Friend of Not.

From within the ’Can Family’, ’May’ can be replaced by ’Might’, or ’Can’, or ’Could’, either because of a change in the Speech Intent, the Language Register, or with the passage of Time.

 

My friend was the Chief Engineer of a big company in the ’90s.

’Was’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a Member of the ’Be Family’.

’Was’ is a Red Jump Word and a Friend of Not.

With a change in Person or Number, ’Was’ can be replaced by ’Were’ from within the same ’Be Family’.

’Was’ can also be replaced by ’Were’ if the Speech intent is Non-Past Conditional.

 

My grandmother had been very ill before she died.

’Had’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a Member of the ’Have Family’

’Had’ is a Red Jump Word and a Friend of Not.

It is most often used for the ’Past Perfect Simple’ and the ’Past Perfect Continuous’ Tenses.

It is also used in some idiomatic expressions, e. g. ’Had better’ as a near-equivalent of ’Ought’, and ’Had best’ as a near-equivalent of ’Must’.

 

My lady friend would like to travel round the world on a big liner.

’Would’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and a Member of the ’Will Family’.

’Would’ is a Red Jump Word and a Friend of Not.

If ’Would’ is a Non-Past Conditional, it can only be made Past with the passage of Time by using ’Perfect Infinitive’ instead of ’Infinitive’.

It is also used in some Idiomatic Expressions, e. g. ’Would rather’, ’Would much rather’ or ’Would sooner’, to show preference.

’Would’ can also be used as the replacement of ’Used’ when the situation is already set by ’Used’.

 

Nobody dare speak to him.

’Dare’ is in a funny transitory position; it is moving from an Anomalous Finite end towards an Orange Verb end.

It is still one of the 24 Anomalous Finites but it also exists as an Orange Verb.

It belongs to the Group of the 5 Soloists and it cannot be replaced by any other Anomalous Finites with the passage of Time.

As an Anomalous Finite, it is not common in Question; we tend to ask with ’Do’, ’Does’ or ’Did’. ’Dare’ is Not a Red Jump Word.

As an Anomalous Finite, it is a Friend of Not; ’Dare not’ is perfectly all right and it is often used.

As an Orange Verb, ’Dare’ exists both in its Present and in its Past Forms. We can break these up into ’Do’ [Red Jump Word] + ’Dare’ [Yellow Infinitive] or ’Does’ [Red Jump Word] + ’Dare’ [Yellow Infinitive] and ’Did’ [Red Jump Word] + ’Dare’ [Yellow Infinitive].

 

Their whole family will buy presents for the newly wed.

’Will’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a member of the ’Will Family’.

It is a Red Jump Word and a Friend of Not.

’Will’ can be replaced by ’Shall’ with a change in Person, and by ’Would’ with the Passage of Time, both from within the same Family.

’Will’ as an Anomalous Finite is most often used in the Future Tenses.

 

There has been no rain for the last three months.

’Has’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a Member of the ’Have Family’.

’Has’ is a Red Jump Word and a Friend of Not.

It can be replaced by ’Have’ with the change in Person or Number, and by ’Had’ with the passage of Time.

’Has’ is most often used int he Perfect Tenses and in a kind of possessive form.

 

There is a big red dictionary on the desk.

’Is’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a member of the ’Be Family’.

It is a Red Jump Word and it is a Friend of Not.

It can be replaced by ’Am’ or ’Are’ with a change in Person or Number, and by ’Was’ or ’Were’ with the passage of Time.

It is most often used in the Present Continuous Tense, as a Copula, and in Conditional Sentences in Non-Past Time and High Probability Condition.

 

There might be a storm later this evening.

’Might’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a Member of the ’Can Family’.

It is a Red Jump Word and it is a Friend of Not.

’Might’ cannot really be replaced by any other Member of the ’Can Family’.

It can only be made Past by adding ’Perfect Infinitive’ instead of the ’Infinitive’.

 

There were two Pakistani students in my class last autumn.

’Were’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a Member of the ’Be Family’.

’Were’ is a Red Jump Word and it is a Friend of Not.

It can be replaced by ’was’ with a change in Person or Number.

’Were’ is most often used in the Past Tenses, as a Copula and in Conditional Sentences.

 

We all need some time to relax.

’Need’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is in the Group of the  5 Soloists.

’Need’ has a double life: It can be an Orange Verb, buti t can also act as a Red Jump Word and a Friend of Not.

It is in a Transitory Period and within a few decades it mitght lose its Anomalous Finite character all together.

’Need’ cannot be easily replaced by any other Anomalous Finite, neither for the Group of 5 soloists, not from any one of the five Families.

 

We ought to start at once.

’Ought’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is in the Group of 5 Soloists.

’Ought’ is a Red Jump Word and it is a Friend of Not.

’Ought’ can be replaced by ’Should’ if the Situation is less formal and / or the Language Register is more friendly.

’Ought’ is used to give advice.

’Ought’ doesn’t have a Past Time equivalent; neither is the Group of the 5 Soloists not int he 5 Families. With the passage of Time, we use the ’Perfect Infinitive’ instead of the ’Infinitive’.

 

We shall go on a cruise this summer.

’Shall’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a Member of the ’Will Family’.

’Shall’ is a Red jump Word and it is a Friend of Not.

’Shall’ can be replaced by ’Will’ with a change in Person, and by ’Would’ or ’Should’ with the Passage of Time, both from within the same Family.

’Shall’ as an Anomalous Finite is most often used in the Future Tenses.

 

Yesterday, my son did the biggest puzzle all afternoon.

In this Sentence ’Did’ is Not an Anomalous Finite and it is Not a Friend of Not. It is an Orange Verb.

With this ’Did’ we can neither turn the Sentence ’Yesterday, my son did the biggest puzzle all afternoon.’ into a Question, nor make it Negative.

To be able to ask Questions or make Negative Sentences, we have to break up ’Did’ [Orange Verb] into ’Did’ [Red Jump Word] + ’Do [Yellow Infinitive].’