Sentence 043 Upload for Feb. 12, 2019

Select the bad one(s); which is the worst?

We'll let the cat out of the bag tomorrow.

If you have any questions, please don't hesitate to raise them.

If you have any problems in reading the Blue Screenshots, please tell me and I can send you pdf files via email or Skype.

This system doesn't support the pdf format.

Sentence 042 Let the cat out of the bag. Feb. 11, 2019

042 At 5 pm Paul brings the machine to a stop.

042 Grandmother is adding salt to the chicken soup.

042 Here is the key to the puzzle.

042 I can’t find the twin to this sock.

042 I guess you ought to listen more attentively.

042 I’m used to getting up very early.

042 I need to practise all day and every day to the concert.

042 I used to be a policeman and I would always catch thieves.

042 We are going to the harbour to see the ’Little Mermaid’.

042 Yesterday, I went to the station to meet Jerry.

Leslie: Here and Now, we’ve got to make the distinction between ’TO as an Infinitive Marker’, and ’TO as a Preposition’.

’At 5 pm Paul brings the machine to a stop.’

  • In this Sentence, ’TO’ is a Preposition to ’a stop’;

’Grandmother is adding salt to the chicken soup.’

  • In this Sentence, ’TO’ is a Preposition to ’the chicken soup’;

’Here is the key to the puzzle.’

  • In this Sentence, ’TO’ is a Preposition to ’the puzzle’;

’I can’t find the twin to this sock.’

  • In this Sentence, ’TO’ is a Preposition to ’this sock’;

’I guess you ought to listen more attentively.’

  • In this Sentence, ’TO’ is an Infinitive Marker that is used after the Anomalous Finite ’OUGHT’;

’I’m used to getting up very early.’

  • In this Sentence, ’TO’ is a Preposition that is followed by a Gerund Form of the Phrasal Verb ’GET UP’;

’I need to practise all day and every day to the concert.’

  • In this Sentence, the first ’TO’ is an Infinitive Marker after the Orange [Full] Verb ’NEED’;
  • the second ’TO’ is a Preposition before the Noun Phrase ’the concert’;

’I used to be a policeman and I would always catch thieves.’

  • In this Sentence, ’TO’ is an Infinitive Marker that is used after the Anomalous Finite ’USED’;

’We are going to the harbour to see the ’Little Mermaid’.’

  • In this Sentence, the first ’TO’ is a Preposition that is followed by the Noun Phrase ’the harbour’ to make the Adverb of Place ’to the harbour’;
  • the second ’TO’ is an Infinitive Marker to make the Adverb of Reason ’to see the Little Mermaid’;

’Yesterday, I went to the station to meet Jerry.’

  • In this Sentence, the first ’TO’ is a Preposition that is followed by the Noun Phrase ’the station’ to make the Adverb of Place ’to the station’;

the second ’TO’ is an Infinitive Marker to make the Adverb of Reason ’to meet Jerry’.

Sentence 042 Upload for Feb. 11, 2019

Select the bad one(s); which is the worst?

We'll let the cat out of the bag tomorrow.

If you have any questions, please don't hesitate to raise them.

If you have any problems in reading the Blue Screenshots, please tell me and I can send you pdf files via email or Skype.

This system doesn't support the pdf format.

Sentence 041 Let the cat out of the bag. Feb.10, 2019

041 George is trying to pass the exam because he thinks it is necessary for the university entry.

041 Greg is working hard because he will get a reward.

041 I’ll go if you don’t have some time for me.

041 I’ll make a hard copy as you have told me to.

041 I’m very glad to see you.

041 It’s been good to see you.

041 Jill comes here every day because you are here.

041 Yesterday, I went to the station to meet Jerry.

Leslie: In this point we are going to deal with Adverbs of Reason / Adverbs of Purpose that are used to answer the question WHY.

The most frequenly used Adverbs of Reason / Adverbs of Purpose are as follows:

  • ’Accidentally’ means ’by chance’, ’by accident’ or ’by mistake’;
  • ’Because’ states the reason;

’George is trying to pass the exam because he thinks it is necessary for the university entry.’

’Greg is working hard because he will get a reward.’

’Jill comes here every day because you are here.’

  • ’Consequently’ states the consequence of an action or happening;
  • ’Hence’ is used to state the reason of an action or incident;
  • ’In order to’ is a Stressed Infinitive of Purpose;
  • ’Lest’ means ’in case’;
  • ’Purposely’ names the purpose of an action;
  • ’Since’ is a Synonym of ’Because’;
  • ’So’ means ’as a result’;
  • ’So that’ is used to name the reason because of which the situation has arisen;
  • ’Therefore’ is used to state the reason for a happening;
  • and ’Thus’ means ’as a result’ or ’as a consequence’.

 

The Adverb of Reason can be expressed by a Full Infinitive as well, as in

’I’m very glad to see you.’

’It’s been good to see you.’

’Yesterday, I went to the station to meet Jerry.’

Sentence 041 Upload for Feb. 10, 2019

Select the bad one(s); which is the worst?

We'll let the cat out of the bag tomorrow.

If you have any questions, please don't hesitate to raise them.

If you have any problems in reading the Blue Screenshots, please tell me and I can send you pdf files via email or Skype.

This system doesn't support the pdf format.

Sentence 040 Let the cat out of the bag. Feb. 9, 2019

040 All students should be in the classroom directly the bell rings.

040 I never drink coffee in the evening.

040 I often have lunch at 1:30 pm.

040 I sometimes have a pint of beer late in the evening.

040 I usually get up very early in the morning.

040 We went to church on Sunday, January the 1st.

040 We went to the market on Saturday, January the 7th.

040 You can help yourself from the fridge whenever you feel like eating.

040 You can stay in this group as long as you are able to cope with the speed and the workload.

040 You can use my laptop until you are told to stop.

040 You can use the bathroom after I have gone.

040 You can finish the letter when you can find the time.

Leslie: Adverbs of Time can be

  • solo words like ’already’, ’always’, ’annually’, ’before’, ’bimonthly’, ’constantly’, ’daily’, ’earlier’, ’early’, ’eventually’, ’ever’, ’finally’, ’first’, ’formerly’, ’fortnightly’, ’frequently’, ’generally’, ’hourly’, ’infrequently’, ’just’, ’last’, ’late’, ’lately’, ’later’, ’monthly’, ’never’, ’next’, ’nightly’, ’normally’, ’now’, ’occasionally’, ’often’, ’previously’, ’quarterly’, ’rarely’, ’recently’, ’regularly’, ’scarcely’, ’seldom’, ’since’, ’sometimes’, ’soon’, ’still’, ’then’, ’today’, ’tomorrow’, ’tonight’, ’usually’, ’weekly’, ’yearly’, ’yesterday’, ’yet’.
  • Prepositional Phrases as in

’I never drink coffee in the evening.’

’I sometimes have a pint of beer late in the evening.’

’We went to church on Sunday, January the 1st.’

’We went to the market on Saturday, January the 7th.’

  • Adverbial phrases as in

’Students should in the classroom directly the bell rings.’

’You can help yourself from the fridge whenever you feel like eating.’

’You can stay in this group as long as you are able to cope with the speed and the workload.’

’You can use my laptop until you are told to stop.’

’You can use the bathroom after I have gone.’

’You can finish the letter when you can find the time.’

Sentence 040 Upload for Feb. 9, 2019

Select the bad one(s); which is the worst?

We'll let the cat out of the bag tomorrow.

If you have any questions, please don't hesitate to raise them.

If you have any problems in reading the Blue Screenshots, please tell me and I can send you pdf files via email or Skype.

This system doesn't support the pdf format.

Sentence 039 Let the cat out of the bag. Feb. 8, 2019

039 Bertrand flew to London for a conference last summer.

039 Grandfather carried the fertilizers to the back garden.

039 I’m going to visit my relatives in Dallas, USA in August.

039 I want to live where the climate is warm.

039 John will ride as far as he can.

039 Mary put the shopping away on the shelves, into the fridge and to the pantry.

039 We should go out where we can find old friends.

039 We should live where the cost of living is low.

Leslie: Here and Now, we are talking about Adverbs of Place that always tell us about the Location where the Action or Happening is being carried out.

  • Adverbs of Place can be Directional as in

’Bertrand flew to London for a conference last summer.’,

’Grandfather carried the fertilizers to the back garden.’,

’I’m going to visit my relatives in Dallas, USA in August.’, and

’Mary put the shopping away on the shelves, into the fridge and to the pantry.’

  • Adverbs of Place can also refer to Distances as in

’John will ride as far as he can.’

  • Some Adverbs of Place are expressed in Adverbial Phrases as in

’I want to live where the climate is warm.’,

’We should go out where we can find old friends.’ and

’We should live where the cost of living is low.’

Sentence 039 Upload for Feb. 8, 2019

Select the bad one(s); which is the worst?

We'll let the cat out of the bag tomorrow.

If you have any questions, please don't hesitate to raise them.

If you have any problems in reading the Blue Screenshots, please tell me and I can send you pdf files via email or Skype.

This system doesn't support the pdf format.

Sentence 038 Let the cat out of the bag. Feb. 7, 2019

038 Andy ran quickly in the race.

038 Miss Martin slowly turned toward me.

038 Miss Martin turned slowly toward me.

038 Mr Martin slowly turned and walked away.

038 Mr Martin turned and slowly walked away.

038 Sarah listened attentively all through the test.

038 Slowly, Miss Martin turned toward me.

Leslie: Here and Now, we are talking about Adverbs of Manner and their special relationship to Verbs.

Maggie: There are three Sentences here that are very similar. So similar that I cannot see any difference between them.

These are ’Miss Martin slowly turned towards me.’ and ’Miss Martin turned slowly towads me.’ and also ’Slowly, Miss Martin turned towards me.’

L: You are right; there is practically no difference between these Sentences.

In spoken English, they are perfectly interchangeable, i. e. the nuance differences can be overcompensated by intonation, stress, rhythm, speed, volume and voice-range.

In written English, however, the differences can be real. The Part of Speech that is put in an unusual position int he Sentence will be more heavily stressed than the same word in its usual place in the Subject > Verb> Object > Manner > Place > Time routine.

M: There is a pair of Sentences with a real difference between them: ’Mr Martin slowly turned and walked away.’ and ’Mr Martin turned and slowly walked away.’

I think that there is a real difference here because the same Adverb of Manner modifies a different Verb in the two Sentences.

So, the Modified Verbs make the difference.

L: It is a very important point you have just made: Adverbs of manner are often associated only with certain Verbs, and vice versa, different Verbs will invite a different selection of Adverbs of Manner that can modify them. The choice is limited.

M: Please give examples to this selection.

L: Take the Sentence ’Andy ran quickly in the race.’ as an example.

The Verb ’run’ is related to the Concept of Speed.

The Noun ’Speed’ can be modified by umpteen Adjectives, like ’high’, ’full’, ’maximum’. ’average’, ’same’, ’constant’, ’incredible’, ’remarkable’, ’tremendous’, ’extraordinary’, and dozens of more.

The Verb ’run’, however, can be modified only by a great deal narrower selection of Adverbs of Manner, e. g. ’fast’, ’quicly’, ’slowly’, or, if we forget ’speed’  and concentrate more on the Mood, we can use ’happily’, ’silently’, ’poorly’, and many more Adverbs.

In the present section of our learning, we follow the Top-Down Approach.

In the next section [The Bottom-Up Approach] and in the last [Helicopter Mind], we are going to concentrate on making Adverbials [at maximum speed, at constant speed, at tremendous speed, etc] and many other building blocks to express ourselves better, both in speech and in writing.

In the last Sentence of the selection: ’Sarah listened attentively all through the test.’, the Verb is ’listen’ and it is related to the Concept of Making a Conscious Effort of Hearing.

Here we make a very clear distinction between ’hearing’ as a faculty and ’listening’ as a conscious effort.

The selection of Adverb of Manner that can modify the Verb ’listen’ is very limited indeed: ’carefully’, ’attentively’, or with less focus ont he conscious effort, ’five times’, ’with deeper and deeper understanding’.

Sentence 038 Upload for Feb. 7, 2019

Select the bad one(s); which is the worst?

We'll let the cat out of the bag tomorrow.

If you have any questions, please don't hesitate to raise them.

If you have any problems in reading the Blue Screenshots, please tell me and I can send you pdf files via email or Skype.

This system doesn't support the pdf format.

Sentence 037 Let the cat out of the bag. Feb. 6, 2019

037 Anne was constantly trying to make ends meet.

037 Every summer, I have to spray my roses repeatedly against greenfly.

037 Grandmother usually bargains with the farmers at the local market.

037 I go to the second-hand bookshop time after time to look for an old Hornby Dictionary.

037 I hardly ever go to the gym; I jog instead.

037 I think that I will never give up reading quality literature.

037 I used to be a policeman; I would often catch pickpockets in crowded places.

037 I’ve got to save everything I write time and again to feel safe.

037 Jack always stays up late to watch a horror film.

037 My aunt frequently goes to bed early with a headache.

037 My friends and I go to the Red Dragon from time to time for a Buddha’s Favourite.

037 My son and I go to a concert sometimes.

037 Old Arthur occasionally goes to the pub and has a drink.

037 Some politicians scarcely tell the truth.

037 Susan is ever anxious to please.

037 The director addressed the meeting with his habitual frankness last night.

Leslie:  This is probably the most complex topic form the point of view of Time vs Tense in English:

  • The Grammatical Tense is originally Present Simple Tense.
  • There are at least three problems here:
  • 1 the Time is All-Inclusive, including the Past, the Present and the Future; so it is NOT exclusively Present, and it is a lack of Concord between Time and Tense;
  • the All-Inclusive character is there in all Sentences above with the exception of one: ’I used to be a policeman; I would often catch pickpockets in crowded places.’
  • Here the time is limited to the Past but every action and happening that expresses Past Time was once in the Here-and-Now.
  • The difference is not in the action but in the after-life of the action, i. e. the action is not repeated after a certain Time.
  • The All-Inclusive character is most probably coded in the Frequency Adverb. We can find it even in the alternative of  ’Used to’ as ’would often’.
  • 2 The Tense is Simple now but in Real Time, most of the actions sounded like Continuous.
  • Let’s take the Sentence ’Old Arthur occasionally goes to the pub and has a drink.’ as an example.
  • ’Arthur, where are you going?’ ’I’m going to the pub in the village.’ ’What are you going to do there?’ ’I’m going to have a pint and see a few friends there.’
  • So, the Simple Tense is the recording of whatever is Continuous in Real Time.
  • 3 The third problem is with the Aspect; Aspect is a grammatical category of Verbs and it can be Progressive, Perfect, or Perfect Progressive;
  • In Real Time, the actions in the Sentences above are in Progressive-, or in Perfect-, or in Perfect Progressive Tenses but with the Elapse of Time, the Tense changes into a Simple Tense;

If there is one Action or Happening, the Tense changes into Past Simple Tense, but if the Action or Happening is repetitive, it changes into Present Simple Tense.

Sentence 037 Upload for Feb. 6, 2019

Select the bad one(s); which is the worst?

We'll let the cat out of the bag tomorrow.

If you have any questions, please don't hesitate to raise them.

If you have any problems in reading the Blue Screenshots, please tell me and I can send you pdf files via email or Skype.

This system doesn't support the pdf format.

Sentence 036 Let the cat out of the bag. Feb. 05, 2019

036 I tried to call Jack three or four times last night.

036 I would’ve liked to call you but your line was engaged all evening.

036 Jo looks like Greek but she is actually Swedish.

036 Last Sunday, I thought that I overslept but it was only 6:30.

036 My lady friend is tall, blond and slim.

036 On Saturday, I woke up at six, had a coffee, had a shower, shaved, got dressed, had breakfast and went to the station to catch my train.

036 Peter is either too tired or very lazy.

036 Yesterday, I went to the supermarket and bought rolls, butter, coldcuts and green peppers for the sandwiches.

036 You can accept, refuse or neglect my offer, as it fits your project.

036 You either used a wrong username or a wrong code.

Leslie: We are talking about the use of ’and’, ’or’ and ’but’.

They are all Conjunctions.

They are all Coordinating Conjunctions.

With ’and’, we build up a list of items.

The examples from above are ’My lady friend is tall, blond and slim.’; here we build up a list of qualities from Adjectives.

Another Sentence is ’On Saturday, I woke up at six, had a coffee, had a shower, shaved, got dressed, had breakfast and went to the station to catch my train.’; here we make a list of activities from Verbs and Verb Phrases.

Yet another Sentence is ’Yesterday, I went to the supermarket and bought rolls, butter, coldcuts and green peppers for the sandwiches.’; here we make a list of Objects from Nouns and Noun Phrases.

With ’or’, we choose from a list of items.

The examples from above are ’I tried to call you three or four times last night.’; here we choose from a list of frequences, made up of Adjectives [three, four] and Prepositions [times].

Another Sentence is ’Peter is either too tired or very lazy.’; here we choose from a list of Adjectival Phrases, made up of Adverbs [too, very] and Adjectives [tired, lazy].

Yet another Sentence is ’You can accept, refuse or neglect my offer, as it is your project.’; here we choose fom a list of Verb Phrases, made up of Verb + Object.

Still another Sentence is ’You either used a wrong username or a wrong code.’; here we choose from a list of Noun Phrases made up of Nouns [username, code], Adjectives [wrong 2x] and an indefinite Article [a].

With ’but’, we prefer one choice and negate other choices, or we introduce opposing propositions.

The examples from above are ’I would’ve liked to call you but your line was engaged all evening.’.

Another Sentence is ’Jo looks like Greek but she is actually Swedish.’

Yet another Sentence is ’Last Sunday, I thought that I overslept buti t was only 6:30.’

Sentence 036 Upload for Feb. 5, 2019

Select the bad one(s); which is the worst?

We'll let the cat out of the bag tomorrow.

If you have any questions, please don't hesitate to raise them.

If you have any problems in reading the Blue Screenshots, please tell me and I can send you pdf files via email or Skype.

This system doesn't support the pdf format.

Sentence 035 Let the cat out of the bag. Feb. 4, 2019

035 Few of the gardens are cared for.

035 Few would have thought that Monica took the money from the safe.

035 I’m spending my few free hours relaxing in quality music.

035 Many people have entered for the competition but few will win prizes.

035 My son is among the fortunate few who have managed to escape to escape flu this winter.

035 Poor and honest politicians are few and far between.

035 There were a few books on the shelf.

035 There were few books on the shelf.

Leslie: We are going to deal with ’few vs a few’.

Eve: My favourite is ’Poor and honest politicians are few and far between.’ I haven’t heard this idiom before; I guess it means quite rare.

L: You are dead right here. The meqaning is very complex: it means that something is rare, it comes with big gaps and infrequently. If we talk about poor and honest politicians, the sentence suggests that their number is low and not enough. It should be higher.

E: There are other sentences here that suggest the same: ’Few of the gardens are cared for.’ and ’Few would have thought that Monica took the money from the safe.’ and also ’There were few books on the shelf.’

L: You are r8ight. All these suggest that something is low in number and not enough for the purpose.

By the way,  two other sentences belong here: ’I’m spending my few free hours relaxing in quality music.’ and ’My son is among the fortunate few who have managed to escape flu this winter.’

E: Oh, yes, really. And then the odd-man-out is ’There were a few books on the shelf.’ and it mens that the number of books was not very high but enough for the purpose.

Sentence 035 Upload for Feb. 4, 2019

Select the bad one(s); which is the worst?

We'll let the cat out of the bag tomorrow.

If you have any questions, please don't hesitate to raise them.

If you have any problems in reading the Blue Screenshots, please tell me and I can send you pdf files via email or Skype.

This system doesn't support the pdf format.

Sentence 034 Let the cat out of the bag. Feb. 3, 2019

Please CLICK HERE to find the ANOMALOUS FINITES Block and then come back to this Blog.

034 You must see the doctor with your headache.

’Must’, along with the other 23, is one of the Anomalous Finites.

It belongs to The Group of Five Soloists, i. e. it is Not a Member of a Family.

It means that it doesn’t have any structural relatives and it cannot be replaced by another Anomalous Finite if / when the Time changes from Future to Present, or from Non-Past to Past.

’Must’ is a Red Jump Word and a Friend of Not.

If we want to keep the original meaning, ’Must’ can only be made Past by using ’Perfect Infinitive’ instead of the ’Infinitive’.

If the Speech Intent is Deduction, ’Must’ can only be made Negative by using ’Can’t’.

Halfway between ’Must’ and ’Can’t’ we can use ’May’.

 

034 Applicants to this job should be in good health.

’Should’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a Member of the ’Will Family’.

’Should’ is a Red Jump Word and a Friend of Not.

It can only be made Past with the passage of Time if we use ’Perfect Infinitive’ instead of the ’Infinitive’.

 

034 At the Chinese market, you can buy a bag full of food for less than 15 euros.

’Can’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a Member of the ’Can Family’.

’Can’ is a Red Jump Word and a Friend of Not.

With the passage of Time, it can be replaced by ’Could’, and also by ’May’ or ’Might’ from within the same Family if the Language Register changes.

 

034 Dorothy always does her homejoy right after class.

The ’Does’ in this Sentence is NOT one of the 24 Anomalous Finites.

It is Not a Jump Word and it is Not a Friend of Not. It is an Orange Verb.

With this ’Does’, we can neither turn the Sentence ’Dorothy always does her homejoy right after class.’ into a Question, nor make it Negative.

To be able to ask Questions or make Negative Sentences, we have to break up ’Does’ [Orange Verb] into ’Does’ [Red Jump Word] + ’Do’ [Yellow Infinitive].

 

034 I am the youngest in my family.

’Am’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a Member of the ’Be Family’.

’Am’ is a Red jump Word and a Friend of Not.

With the change in the Person in Dialogues, ’Am’ can be replaced by ’Are’ from the same Family.

With the passage of Time, ’Am’ can be replaced by ’Was’ from the same Family.

 

034 I could play football very well when I was in the secondary school.

’Could’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a Member of the ’Can Family’.

’Could’ is a Red Jump Word and a Friend of Not.

’Could’ can only be made Past with the passage of Time if we use Perfect Infinitive instead of Infinitive.

 

034 I do a lot of exercises every day.

The ’Do’ in this Sentence is NOT one of the 24 Anomalous Finites.

It is NOT a Jump Word and it is NOT a Friend of Not. It is an Orange Verb.

With this ’Do’ we can neither turn the Sentence ’I do a lot of exercises every day.’ into a Question, nor make it Negative.

To be able to ask Questions or make Negative Sentences, we have to break up ’Do’ [Orange Verb] into ’Do’ [Red Jump Word] + ’Do [Yellow Infinitive].’

 

034 I have been to Rome five times so far.

’Have’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a Member of the ’Have Family’.

’Have’ is a Red Jump Word and a Friend of Not.

’Have’ is used to form the Perfect Tenses and also to express a kind of Possessive.

’Have’ can be replaced by ’Has’ with a change in Person, or by ’Had’ with the passage of Time, both from within the same Family.

 

034 I used to be a policeman.

’Used’ is originally one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is in the Group of 5 Soloists, i. e. it is Not a Member of a Family.

It means that it doesn’t have any structural relatives and it cannot be replaced by another Anomalous Finite with a change in Number or Person, or with the passage of Time.

’Used’ used to be used as a Red Jump Word and we used to make a Question from the Sentence ’I used to be a policeman.’ like ’Used you to be a policeman?’

’Used’ used to be a Friend of Not and the Negative Sentence used to sound like ’I usedn’t to be a policeman.’

All this belongs to the Past. In our Modern Time, we use ’Used’ as an Orange Verb and we break it up into ’Did’ [Red Jump Word] + ’Use’ [Yellow Infinitive] to make Questions.

We also break up ’Used’ [Orange Verb] into ’Did’ [Red Friend of Not] + ’Use’ [Yellow Infinitive] to make a Negative Sentence.

The use of ’Used’ is limited to Past Time and it has no Non-Past Time or Future Time equivalent.

 

034 Mr and Mrs Wing are teachers at the local elementary school.

’Are’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a Member of the ’Be Family’.

It is a Red Jump Word and a Friend of Not.

With a change in Person or Number, ’Are’ can be replaced by ’Am’ or ’Is’, and with the passage of Time it can be replaced by ’Was’ or ’Were’, all from within the same ’Be Family’.

 

034 My friend may come over to play chess tonight.

’May’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a Member of the ’Can Family’.

It is a Red Jump Word and a Friend of Not.

From within the ’Can Family’, ’May’ can be replaced by ’Might’, or ’Can’, or ’Could’, either because of a change in the Speech Intent, the Language Register, or with the passage of Time.

 

034 My friend was the Chief Engineer of a big company in the ’90s.

’Was’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a Member of the ’Be Family’.

’Was’ is a Red Jump Word and a Friend of Not.

With a change in Person or Number, ’Was’ can be replaced by ’Were’ from within the same ’Be Family’.

’Was’ can also be replaced by ’Were’ if the Speech intent is Non-Past Conditional.

 

034 My grandmother had been very ill before she died.

’Had’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a Member of the ’Have Family’

’Had’ is a Red Jump Word and a Friend of Not.

It is most often used for the ’Past Perfect Simple’ and the ’Past Perfect Continuous’ Tenses.

It is also used in some idiomatic expressions, e. g. ’Had better’ as a near-equivalent of ’Ought’, and ’Had best’ as a near-equivalent of ’Must’.

 

034 My lady friend would like to travel round the world on a big liner.

’Would’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and a Member of the ’Will Family’.

’Would’ is a Red Jump Word and a Friend of Not.

If ’Would’ is a Non-Past Conditional, it can only be made Past with the passage of Time by using ’Perfect Infinitive’ instead of ’Infinitive’.

It is also used in some Idiomatic Expressions, e. g. ’Would rather’, ’Would much rather’ or ’Would sooner’, to show preference.

’Would’ can also be used as the replacement of ’Used’ when the situation is already set by ’Used’.

 

034 Nobody dare speak to him.

’Dare’ is in a funny transitory position; it is moving from an Anomalous Finite end towards an Orange Verb end.

It is still one of the 24 Anomalous Finites but it also exists as an Orange Verb.

It belongs to the Group of the 5 Soloists and it cannot be replaced by any other Anomalous Finites with the passage of Time.

As an Anomalous Finite, it is not common in Question; we tend to ask with ’Do’, ’Does’ or ’Did’. ’Dare’ is Not a Red Jump Word.

As an Anomalous Finite, it is a Friend of Not; ’Dare not’ is perfectly all right and it is often used.

As an Orange Verb, ’Dare’ exists both in its Present and in its Past Forms. We can break these up into ’Do’ [Red Jump Word] + ’Dare’ [Yellow Infinitive] or ’Does’ [Red Jump Word] + ’Dare’ [Yellow Infinitive] and ’Did’ [Red Jump Word] + ’Dare’ [Yellow Infinitive].

 

034 Their whole family will buy presents for the newly wed.

’Will’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a member of the ’Will Family’.

It is a Red Jump Word and a Friend of Not.

’Will’ can be replaced by ’Shall’ with a change in Person, and by ’Would’ with the Passage of Time, both from within the same Family.

’Will’ as an Anomalous Finite is most often used in the Future Tenses.

 

034 There has been no rain for the last three months.

’Has’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a Member of the ’Have Family’.

’Has’ is a Red Jump Word and a Friend of Not.

It can be replaced by ’Have’ with the change in Person or Number, and by ’Had’ with the passage of Time.

’Has’ is most often used int he Perfect Tenses and in a kind of possessive form.

 

034 There is a big red dictionary on the desk.

’Is’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a member of the ’Be Family’.

It is a Red Jump Word and it is a Friend of Not.

It can be replaced by ’Am’ or ’Are’ with a change in Person or Number, and by ’Was’ or ’Were’ with the passage of Time.

It is most often used in the Present Continuous Tense, as a Copula, and in Conditional Sentences in Non-Past Time and High Probability Condition.

 

034 There might be a storm later this evening.

’Might’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a Member of the ’Can Family’.

It is a Red Jump Word and it is a Friend of Not.

’Might’ cannot really be replaced by any other Member of the ’Can Family’.

It can only be made Past by adding ’Perfect Infinitive’ instead of the ’Infinitive’.

 

034 There were two Pakistani students in my class last autumn.

’Were’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a Member of the ’Be Family’.

’Were’ is a Red Jump Word and it is a Friend of Not.

It can be replaced by ’was’ with a change in Person or Number.

’Were’ is most often used in the Past Tenses, as a Copula and in Conditional Sentences.

 

034 We all need some time to relax.

’Need’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is in the Group of the  5 Soloists.

’Need’ has a double life: It can be an Orange Verb, buti t can also act as a Red Jump Word and a Friend of Not.

It is in a Transitory Period and within a few decades it mitght lose its Anomalous Finite character all together.

’Need’ cannot be easily replaced by any other Anomalous Finite, neither for the Group of 5 soloists, not from any one of the five Families.

 

034 We ought to start at once.

’Ought’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is in the Group of 5 Soloists.

’Ought’ is a Red Jump Word and it is a Friend of Not.

’Ought’ can be replaced by ’Should’ if the Situation is less formal and / or the Language Register is more friendly.

’Ought’ is used to give advice.

’Ought’ doesn’t have a Past Time equivalent; neither is the Group of the 5 Soloists not int he 5 Families. With the passage of Time, we use the ’Perfect Infinitive’ instead of the ’Infinitive’.

 

034 We shall go on a cruise this summer.

’Shall’ is one of the 24 Anomalous Finites and it is a Member of the ’Will Family’.

’Shall’ is a Red jump Word and it is a Friend of Not.

’Shall’ can be replaced by ’Will’ with a change in Person, and by ’Would’ or ’Should’ with the Passage of Time, both from within the same Family.

’Shall’ as an Anomalous Finite is most often used in the Future Tenses.

 

034 Yesterday, my son did the biggest puzzle all afternoon.

In this Sentence ’Did’ is Not an Anomalous Finite and it is Not a Friend of Not. It is an Orange Verb.

With this ’Did’ we can neither turn the Sentence ’Yesterday, my son did the biggest puzzle all afternoon.’ into a Question, nor make it Negative.

To be able to ask Questions or make Negative Sentences, we have to break up ’Did’ [Orange Verb] into ’Did’ [Red Jump Word] + ’Do [Yellow Infinitive].’

Sentence 034 Upload for Feb. 3, 2019

Select the bad one(s); which is the worst?

We'll let the cat out of the bag tomorrow.

If you have any questions, please don't hesitate to raise them.

If you have any problems in reading the Blue Screenshots, please tell me and I can send you pdf files via email or Skype.

This system doesn't support the pdf format.

Sentence 033 Let the cat out of the bag. Feb. 2, 2019

033 Education had little or no effect on the class bully.

The meaning of ’little’  is ’almost nothing’, ’not much’ or ’minimal’-

033 I’ll bring my little sister with me.

The meaning of ’little sister’  is ’a younger sister’.

033 I love my daughter’s cute little habits.

The meaning of ’little’  is ’charming’, ’pleasant’ or ’good looking’.

033 I met her when she was just a little girl.

The meaning of ’little’  is ’very young’-

033 It was only a very little mistake.

The meaning of ’little’  is ’not important’ or ’insignificant’.

033 John was helping the little boy put on his boots.

The meaning of ’little’  is ’too young’.

033 There was a little chance of winning the Oplympic gold.

The meaning of ’little’  is ’not much but real’ or ’not much but enough to call it a chance’.

033 There was a little food left.

The meaning of ’little’  is ’not much and not enough for the purpose’.

033 There was little chance of winning the Olympic Gold.

The meaning of ’little’  is ’not much and not enough to call it a real chance’.

033 There was little food left.

The meaning of ’little’  is ’not much and not enough for the purpose’.

Sentence 033 Upload for Feb. 2, 2019

Select the bad one(s); which is the worst?

We'll let the cat out of the bag tomorrow.

If you have any questions, please don't hesitate to raise them.

If you have any problems in reading the Blue Screenshots, please tell me and I can send you pdf files via email or Skype.

This system doesn't support the pdf format.

Sentence 032 Let the cat out of the bag. Feb. 1, 2019

032 An elf is an imaginary being with pointed ears.

032 Any more fares please? Two and two halves please.

032 I invited 20 friends last Friday but only half shoved up.

032 King Henry the 8th had six wives.

032 My belief in democracy is firm and considered.

032 My family eat a loaf of bread each and every day.

032 My grammar books are ont he top shelf.

032 my twins are like elves who play pranks and tricks all the time.

032 On the wedding day john and Jill became husband and wife.

032 The different beliefs of hindus and Muslims led to the creation of India and Pakistan in 1947.

032 The knife-thrower threw all his knives within a few seconds.

032 The school canteen ordered 25 loaves of bread yesterday.

032 When I stepped in, grandmother put down her knife in surprise.

032 When I went to the village store, there were more shelves than groceries.

Leslie: There are quite a few Example Sentences here. Let’s see which of them are incorrect.

Irene: There is a funny Sentence here: ’Any more fares please?’ ’Two and two halves please.’

I don’t want to suggest that it is incorrect but, for me, it sounds funny.

L: It is perfectly all right. This exchange is between a conductor / ticket collector and a traveler or passenger, maybe on a London bus.

The traveler or passanger wants two adult tickets and two for reduced fee for whatever reason.

I: in contrast, the other Sentence ’I invited 20 friends last Friday but only half showed up.’ is very simple to understand. Our of 20 friends who were invited, only 10 showed up.

L: What is the next pair?

I: ’An elf is an imaginary being with pointed ears.’ for the singuar and ’My twins are like elves who play pranks and tricks all the time.’

L: Pranks are practical jokes.

I: It is a usual routine of turning the final ’f’ of the singular into a ’ves’ for the plural.

There are more examples for this, like ’On the wedding day, John and Jill became husband and wife.’ and ’King Henry the 8th had six wives.’

and also ’My family eat a loaf of bread each and every day.’ and ’The school canteen ordered 25 loaves of bread yesterday.’

L: ’My grammar book are on the top shelf.’ and ’When i went to the village store, there were more shelves than groceries.’ and also ’When I stepped in, grandmother put down her knife in surprise.’ and ’The knife-thrower threw all his knives within a few seconds.’ follow the same pattern. The ’f’ in the singular is turned ’ves’ in the plural.

I: And here comes the Odd-man-out: ’My belief in democracy is firm and considered.’ vs ’The different beliefs of Hindus and Muslims led to the creation of India and Pakistan in 1947.’

It doesn’t follow the general routine and the ’f’ in the plural becomes ’fs’ in the plural.