New Cheese Test Q 001

Q 001: What is a Time Marker?

A 001: A Time Marker is an Adverb of Time whose meaning is absolute and it makes the Tense.

An example is 'NOW' which normally makes Present Continuous Tense if our choice of the Verb allows that.

Another example is 'YESTERDAY' which normally makes Past Simple Tense.

We call it absolute because 'Yesterday' remains the same as long as 'this day' is the same; after that it becomes 'the day before'.

New Cheese Test Q 002

Q 002: What is a Half-Defined Sentence or Part of Speech?

A 002: A Half-Defined Sentence or Part of Speech has more than one meanings.

One example to this is: 'this morning'.

If the time of speech is 2 p. m., 'this morning' means Past Time and creates Past Tense.

If, however, the time of speech is 6 a. m., and the whole morning is in front of us, 'this morning' is Non-Past Time and creates one of the Non-Past Tenses.

New Cheese Test Q 003

Q 003: What is a Dummy Subject?

A 003: A Dummy Subject stands in place of the Real Subject and it suggests that the Real Subject will come after the Verb. We use this Word-Order to be able to stress the Verb. 

New Cheese Test Q 004

Q 004: What is an Empty Subject?

A 004:

New Cheese Test Q 005

Q 005: What is an Empty Verb?

A 005: 

New Cheese Test Q 006

Q 006: What is a Big Fat Verb?

A 006:

New Cheese Test Q 007

Q 007: What is an antecedent?

A 007: It is somebody or something we mentioned before. In ’I’m sending this bar of chocolate to Sophy. Please take it home and give it to her.’

'This bar of chocolate' is the antecedent to 'it', and ’Sophy’ is the antecedent to ’her’.

Without mentioning chocolate first, 'it' has no meaning at all. Without mentioning Sophy first, the word ’her’ has either no meaning at all, or it has too many meanings.

When we mention 'it' in the second sentence, we understand 'a bar of chocolate'. When we mention ’her’ in the second sentence, we understand ’Sophy’.