Sentence 017 Let the cat out of the bag.
017 I have never been to Scotland.
017 I went to the station.
017 I will go to the beach.
017 Julius Caesar invaded Britain in 55 BCE.
017 Shakespeare wrote 37 Plays and 154 Sonnets.
Leslie: Is there a Time Marker in the Sentence?
Bogi: In some of the Sentences, there is, while in others there aren’t.
L: I agree. Let’s see them one by one.
B: In ’I have never been to Scotland’, the Time Marker maybe ’never’.
L: ’Never’ is more a Frequency Adverb since it doesn’t really make the Tense here. Not all Adverbs of Time are Time Markers.
B: Then, there isn’t a real Time Marker in this Sentence.
L: Right. The Present Perfect Simple Tense often goes without a Time Marker in the Sentence, and we can see it in the 2nd Dilemma of Dilemmatic Grammar that this Sentence completely misses the Past element, and as such, it is In-Phase.
B: I can’t follow it fully.
L: Have You ever been to Scotland, Bogi?
B: No, I haven’t.
L: Then it can be your Sentence. Can you remember the first time you didn’t go to Scotland?
B: Come on, no!
L: And the second time? Was it better for the second time?
B: Don’t make me feel stupid! I’ve never been there.
L: That’s what it means that the Sentence ’I’ve never been to Scotland’ completely misses the Past element.
Normally, the Present Perfect Tense connects two or three Time-Segments. Here, the Sentence is only about the ’Here-and Now’.
It means that Here-and-Now, I’m completely without any experiences about Scotland.
’In-Phase’ means that the Action [in our case Inaction] and its Result [the lack of experiences] are together [In Phase] in the only Time Segment, the Here-and-Now Present.
Let’s see the next.
B: ’I went to the station.’ There is no Time Marker here and, I think, it is a big problem.
L: You are right, but can you tell us why? There are hundreds and thousands of sentences like this in Coursebooks and Grammar Books.
B: It is the first, and actually the only sentence, and as such, it must contain a Time Marker. I know it from earlier entries that in an English Sentence, the Time make the Tense, and the Time is often manifest as a Time Marker.
L: Yes, you are right and your explanation is spotless. The next Sentence?
B: ’I will go to the beach.’ I’m quite positive that it is a carbon copy of the previous Sentence. There is no Time Marker and in a solo Sentence, it is a huge mistake.
L: You are right again here. What is the next?
B: ’Julius Caesar invaded Britain in 55 BCE.’ The Time Marker is ’in 55 BCE’. It is in the Past, and the Past Time makes the Past Tense ’invaded’.
L: I guess that you have learned something. It is simply perfect. We have one more Sentence on the shelf.
B: ’Shakespeare wrote 37 Plays and 154 Sonnets.’ There is no Time Marker here but I don’t think it is a mistake here.
Frankly, I don’t know why. According to the Rules, or Dogma, we should have a Time Marker in the Sentence and there is none here.
L: You are right. Every correct Sentence must have a Time Marker. Either in the Sentence, or in the Situation, or in the Story, or in our History, or in our Culture.
B: Then, in ’Shakespeare wrote 37 Plays and 154 Sonnets.’ the Time Marker is in our Culture.
L: Everybody knows that Shakespeare died 403 years ago, and both the man and his lifeworks belong to the past.
B: Even if we don’t put a Time Marker in the Sentence, it is there in the Meaning of the Sentence through our Culture.