Jan. 14, 2019

Sentence 013 Let the cat out of the bag.

013 I love this coffee.

Leslie: Can you tell me more about this Sentence?

Daniel: I’ll try to do my best.

L: That’s enough.

D: This Sentence is in the same tense as the Sentence yesterday: ’I like coffee’. Present Simple Tense. I can’t tell you more at the moment. Maybe later.

L: OK. Is there a Time Marker in the Sentence?

D: Yes, there is. It is ’this’.

L: You are right. Originally ’this’ is an Adjective pointing to something that is understood by both the speaker and the hearer, but it also links the situation to the Time of Speech.

D: Does it mean that it limits the All Inclusive Time we learned yesterday to the Here and Now?

L: Exactly. Let’s see it through the Horizontal Extension to this Sentence.

I like coffee a lot but this one is so good that it must be one of the best coffees I have ever drunk.

Could you put in the Time Markers?

D: I’ll try. ’Like’ is All Inclusive Time but the ’but’ limits it to Non-Past Here and Now and it is expressed in ’this one’.

I’m not sure about ’must be’.

L: It is what we call Deduction; it is a conclusion drawn from available information. We can anly deduce about conclusion in the Non-Past if we use ’must be’. Even if we deduce about the Past Time, we have to use the same ’must’ and make it Past Time differently. Actually, we change the Infinitive that follows ’must’. But that is well beyond the limits of our topic today.

D: So we can call ’must be’ a Non-Past Time Marker.

L: Sure. Anything else?

D: Maybe ’have ever drunk’ and it is ’by now’, or ’up to the present moment’.

L: You are right. Let’s see the Time – Tense relations.

Does this Sentence contain one Idea, or more Ideas?

D: One Idea. One Subject [I] + one Predicate [love this coffee].

L: Right. Can you identify the Time it refers to?

D: Yes, I can.

L: Is it Past Time, Non-Past Time, or both Past Time and Non-Past Time?

D: Based on the analysis above, it is Non-Past Time.

L: Great. Now, concentrate on the Tense; is it Past or Non-Past?

D: Non-Past. It is Present Simple Tense; the same as in the previous Sentence, but with a completely different result.

L: Can we just conclude what we know so far?

  • you have no lexical problem in your Sentence,
  • your Sentence contains one Idea,
  • this is about Non-Past Time,
  • this Non-Past Time is expressed in a Non-Past Tense of the Verb, so
  • there is a Concord between the Time and Tense.

D: It is shockingly interesting. Such a small difference in the Sentence can make so much difference in the meaning. The same Tense, synonymous Verbs, same Subjects, same Objects and only one extra word.

How can this happen?

L: The answer to your question is in the Verb.

D: ’Like’ and ’love’ are synonyms.

L: You are right, they are, what is more, they belong to the same special category of English Verbs.

D: What is it?

L: The so called Non-Conclusive Verbs.

D: What do we need to know about these Verbs?

L: There are two important points we need to make here: one is about the form of these Verbs, and the other is about the meaning and the philosophy behind their use.

D: First things first: the form.

L: These Verbs cannot be used in the Progressive Tenses in their original meaning.

D: Progressive?

L: It is another name for Continuous Tenses.

D: So the Present Continuous Tense is out. Even if the meaning is like that. Yesterday, the Sentence ’I like coffee’ was in Present Simple Tense and the meaning was like routine, in All Inclusive Time.

The Sentence for today, ’I love this coffee’ is again in Present Simple Tense, but the meaning is like continuous.

L: Exactly. Here the meaning of the Sentence is like Continuous, but we are limited to the use of the Present Simple Tense.

D: And what is the philosophy in it?

L: Those Verbs belong here whose action cannot be started or stopped at your own will.

Do you like chocolate?

D: Yes, I love all kinds of chocolate.

L: Can you make a decision against it tonight, and from tomorrow on, you will not like chocolate?

D: I think I can’t do that and I don’t want to do that.

L: You can decide on whether you eat chocolate or not since the Verb ’eat’ doesn’t belong here but you cannot decide on whether you like it or not because the Verb ’like’ is a Non-Conclusive Verb.

D: What are the Verbs that belong here?

L: I don’t want to tell you much more about them now because we are going to have a page like this where we can go into details within a few days but you can learn the names of the big categories of these Verbs as food for thought.

These are: likes and dislikes, appearance, desires, mental process, sensation, perception, possession, and some other Verbs.