Jan. 7, 2019

Sentence 007 Let the cat out of the bag

007 I have been reading Chemistry at the University of Oxford.

Leslie: Please answer the question in the blue brain-map. Answer only stuff that is related to 007. We’ll start at the outer layer of the onoin and will go, layer by layer, towards the core.

Oliver: ’Been reading’ is part of the Verb indicating a continuity.

L: Please answer only the question.

O: ’Been reading’ is the Extension of the Verb.

L: Does the sentence contain a ’Perfect’: a Perfect Tense or a Perfect Form?

O: ’Been reading’ is not the Predicate because it is incomplete. That is the worst. And ’have been reading’ is a ’Perfect’. It is Present Perfect Continuous.

L: If ’have been reading’ is the Verb, then ’been reading’ is not the Verb. That is my answer to the second question.

O: It is not the Predicate, either. That is the worst option because the Predicate is ’have been reading Chemistry at the University of Oxford.’ The Predicate shows what the Subject does.

L: Or, in another context, what is happening to the Subject. In our series of test-points, we may not understand really why the good one is good if we don’t have a crystal clear idea why the bad ones are bad.

O: That is the total opposite of the typical everyday testing experience.

L: We do not look for the good choice, because that attitude creates a psychological trap called tunnel vision. We can avoid falling into this psychological trap by employing a psychological trick.

O: What is it?

 L: We have to look at all the options with the same intensity and it is only possible if at first we find all the badies, and if / when we understand why the bad one are bad, we can embrace the right choice.

O: Thanks. It feels like very powerful.

L: Does the Sentence contain a 'Perfect'?

O: Yes.

L: Is it a Perfect Tense?

O: Yes.

L: Is it Present Perfect, Past perfect, or Future Perfect?

O: It is Present Perfect.

L: Is it Present Perfect Simple, or Present Perfect Continuous?

O: Continuous.

L: Perfect Tenses usually connect segments of time. Do you agree?

O: Yes.

L: Does it connect two segments or three?

O: 2.

L: What are the two segments it connects? Can you identify them?

O: The past and non-past (mostly the present).

L: Is it possible that it is three?

O: Well, it might sometimes imply that the action continues into the future, but it's just an implication.

L: The sentence in hand is part of a conversation, maybe an answer to a question. Is the situation set as complete?

O: No.

L: Can you make it complete?

O: Yes.

L: Can you make it complete in two different ways?

O: Yes.

L: Please make it complete as if the sentence is heard halfwway through a very demanding undergraduate course. The subject is finished but the course is not yet.

O: My eyes sore! I have been reading Chemistry at the University of Oxford.

L: If the situation is vague or misunderstandable, we make a horizontal extension. That's what you are doing now.

As for your extension, almost, but not quite. Reading Chemistry is not about reading. It means that Chemistry is the main subject.

O: Okay. I am a student at Oxford University. Chemistry has been especially taugh. I am exhausted. I need to sleep for at least 2 days. I have been reading Chemistry at the University of Oxford.

L: Situation #2 is almost the same; the only difference is that Chemistry as a subject is not finishes. There are three more terms to go.

O: I am studying Chemistry at the University of Oxford. I have been studying it for two semesters now. There are 3 more to go.

I have been studying Chemistry at the University of Oxford for a whole year.

L: Great. This is how we learn. Small bit by small bit. We atomize the material into small, elementary concepts. The smaller the better.