• Must

    Please find here the Encarta description of Must

  • Need

    Please find here the Encarta description of Need

  • Dare

    Please find here the Encarta description of Dare

must [must]
(3rd person present singular must, plural musts) CORE-MEANING: a modal verb indicating that somebody is compelled to do something because of a rule or law, or that it is necessary or advisable to do something
Accidents causing injury must be reported immediately.
Employment decisions must be based on ability.
We must improve our schools.
You must give him a chance to state his case.

1.  modal verb
be compelled: to be compelled to do something because of a rule or law
You must stop when the light is red.
All guests must vacate their rooms by 12 noon.
 
2.  modal verb
be necessary: to be important or necessary for doing something
Henceforth, he said, the central organizing principle of all governments must be the environment.
Health care insurance must be affordable.
 
3.  modal verb
be certain: indicates that somebody is sure that something is the case
This must seem strange to you.
Those must be your footprints in the garden.
 
4.  modal verb
indicates belief: indicates that somebody concludes that something is the case on the basis of the available evidence
Paleontologists know that primates must have immigrated to South America sometime before 28 million years ago.
 
5.  modal verb
used to make suggestions: used to make suggestions or invitations or to give advice
You must see a doctor.
 
6.  modal verb
intend: to intend or be determined to do something (formal)
I must call the company.
 
7.  noun
something essential: something that is essential or obligatory
Formal attire is a must at a state dinner.
 
8.  prefix
essential: absolutely necessary or highly recommended for somebody (informal) (added to a verb to form a noun or adjective)
a must-win situation
 
[ Old English mōste , past tense of assumed mōtan "have to, be able to" < Germanic ]

Microsoft® Encarta® 2006. © 1993-2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

need [need]
verb (past and past participle need·ed, present participle need·ing, 3rd person present singular needs)
vti require something: require something in order to have success or achieve a goal
Do you need any money?
He told me that I didn't need to know.
This shirt needs ironing.

modal verb (past and past participle need·ed, present participle need·ing, 3rd person present singular needs)
be necessary: used to indicate that a course of action is desirable or necessary (used in negative statements)
You don't need to thank me; I'm happy to help whenever I can.
Going to med school need not mean you can't study architecture later.

verb (past and past participle need·ed, present participle need·ing, 3rd person present singular needs)
1.  vti deserve something: to deserve something, especially as punishment (informal)
That little boy needs to be given a good talking to.
Those troops need to be shown who's boss.
 
2.  vi to be essential: to be essential or necessary to something (archaic)
"I think that we are all agreed in this matter, and therefore there needs no more words about it." (John Bunyan Pilgrim's Progress 1678)


noun (plural needs)
requirement: something that is a requirement or is wanted
an economic system that recognizes the need for financial security
His needs are few.


[ Old English nē(o)d < Indo-European]

if need be if it is necessary or if it becomes necessary in the future
in need not having enough of things essential for an adequate standard of living
children in need needing something
no need to or for something no reason or justification for something

See knead.
Microsoft® Encarta® 2006. © 1993-2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

dare [der]
modal verb (past and past participle dared, present participle dar·ing, 3rd person present singular dares or dare)
have enough courage for something: to have the courage needed to do something
wanted to ask but then didn't dare
"We must dare to think about 'unthinkable things' because when things have become unthinkable, thinking stops and action becomes mindless." (William Fulbright U.S. Senate Speech March 27, 1965)
 


verb (past and past participle dared, present participle dar·ing, 3rd person present singular dares or dare)
1.  vti have audacity to do something: to do something that angers or outrages somebody (sometimes used as an auxiliary)
Don't you dare do that!
How dare you?
 
2.  vt challenge somebody: to challenge somebody to do something, usually something dangerous or frightening
daring each other to jump first

noun (plural dares)
challenge: a challenge to somebody to do something dangerous or frightening, or a response to such a challenge
did it for a dare

[ Old English darr, dearr , forms of durran "dare" < Germanic]

-dar·er, , noun
Microsoft® Encarta® 2006. © 1993-2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

  • Ought

  • Used

Feb. 28, 2016

ought [awt]
CORE-MEANING: a modal verb indicating what somebody should do
It seems to me that we ought to support their initiative.
You ought to tell her how you feel.
modal verb
1.  be morally right: indicates that somebody has a duty or obligation to do something or that it is morally right to do something
You ought to be ashamed of what you have done.
 
2.  be important: indicates that something is important or a good idea
You ought to see a doctor as soon as possible.
 
3.  be probable: indicates probability or expectation
We ought to be there by now.
 
4.  be wished for: indicates a desire or wish
You ought to come to dinner sometime.
 
5.  should be case: indicates that something should be the case but may not be
That ought to be easy.

[ Old English āhte , past tense of owe ]

hadn't/shouldn't ought

: Avoid in formal writing the regional constructions (called double modal auxiliaries) didn't ought, hadn't ought, or shouldn't ought, as in They didn't ought to have done that. Use instead: They ought not to have done that. The same holds with the regional might could, as in We might could get there by three if we hurry, which is also inappropriate in standard English.

Microsoft® Encarta® 2006. © 1993-2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

used [ysst too]
modal verb
indicates habitual action: used in the past tense to say that somebody or something habitually or usually did something
We used to eat out more often.
He used not to be so grumpy. See also use
 


adjective
accustomed: accustomed to or familiar with somebody or something
We're not used to this weather.

used to or use to?

The spelling used to, with a -d, is a form indicating habitual or customary past actions, as in On Saturdays we used [not use] to go to ball games. (People tend to drop the -d because it is inaudible in many oral contexts. This practice is unacceptable in writing.) When did precedes use(d) to, the correct form is use to, as in Did you use to go to ball games every Saturday? Didn't she use to live in this dorm?
Microsoft® Encarta® 2006. © 1993-2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.